Die Postersession wird am Donnerstag, den 24. Mai 2018, ab 17.00 Uhr in der Aula der Universität Bonn stattfinden. Insbesondere für junge Wissenschaftler*innen bietet die 2-stündige Postersession eine Möglichkeit Kollegen aus der ganzen Welt kennen zu lernen.
Praktische Informationen finden Sie hier.
Maghreb toponymy: reading the landscape and its resources
Njim Adel (University Tunisie)
In Maghreb toponymy I defined four axes: geographical place names, urban toponyms, economic, ethnic and political names. The topography theme comes first. The name de de Kebili in southern Tunisia is the name of the Mountain "Jebel" pronounced otherwise. The toponym of Ammaedara in Tunisia is the Latin pronunciation of the term "flowing water". The city of Madaure in Algeria is another version on the same theme. Place names related to the urban landscape relate to the city walls and its components such as habitat and harbors. The town of "Igilgili" became "Jijel" in Algeria is originally "Hajar Kilae" which means stone walls. The name of the city of Lepcis or Leptis in Libya relates to its lighthouse. This is the Semitic name for "Kabass" meaning torch that refers to the lighthouse of this city and gave this name. Afterwards Leptis Magna (the Great) and Leptis Minus (Little) were created to differentiate them. Resources and economic activities have given rise to toponyms. In Tunisia, the stone resources located at Cap Bon have given the name of place of "Latomies" which is a distorted pronunciation of the Semitic term of "Makaeal" which means quarries in general and here they designate the quarries of stone. Clay and pottery facilities also have their share in (ethnic) toponymy. The name of Africa corresponds to that of the Afri. The name Libya is drawn from the Liboux ethnic group.
La decoración marmórea del frigidarium de las Termas de Valeria (Cuenca): Análisis cuantitativo y tipológico de los fragmentos recogidos en la Campana de 2017
Javier Atienza Fuente (University Tarragona), Santiago David Domínguez Solera and Míchel Muñoz García (ARES Arqueología y Patrimonio Cultural)
La serie de intervenciones arqueológicas llevadas a cabo desde 2014 en el yacimiento de Valeria han permitido sacar a la luz los restos de un edificio termal que debió tener una cierta monumentalidad si tenemos en cuenta la entidad de las estructuras conservadas y la profusión decorativa empleada en sus paramentos.
Hasta ahora se ha exhumado prácticamente en su totalidad uno de sus ambientes principales, identificado como un frigidarium o sala de baño frío.
Además de mosaicos policromos y pintura mural, los paramentos de este ambiente debieron estar decorados por una amplia variedad de marmora, de los cuáles se han recuperado varios centenares de fragmentos. Estos mármoles no sólo fueron utilizados en forma de crustae de revestimiento parietal o como losas pavimentales, sino que se han conservado molduras, fragmentos de elementos arquitectónicos y algún resto escultórico.
El análisis cuantitativo arroja una información valiosa para determinar la cantidad de mármol empleado en la decoración de este ambiente. Por otro lado, el análisis tipológico de las variedades marmóreas empleadas nos indica, entre otros aspectos, la explotación de los recursos pétreos locales del territorium o, también, las relaciones comerciales establecidas entre la ciudad de Valeria y los núcleos extractivos locales, provinciales y extraprovinciales.
Algunas marcas realizadas sobre las piezas recuperadas nos ofrecen también información puntual sobre el trabajo de los marmorarii en esta ciudad del Imperio.
Household economics and commercial networks: the role of the Roman domus of Palazzo Valentini between the Imperial age and the Late Antiquit
Paola Baldassarri (Città Metropolitana di Roma)
The aim of this research is to present the data emerged from the study of Imperial and Late Antique pottery contexts from two domus excavated underneath the Palace of the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital, north of Trajan’s Column, in the earth of both the ancient and the modern city.
The excavations, promoted by the administration of the Metropolitan City between the 2005 and the 2007, have led to the discovery of two the residential areas built between the half of the I and the II century A.D., widely refurbished during the IV cent. A.D., and then abandoned during the V-VI cent. A.D.
The study has included the total amount of the pottery fragments found in the two domus, tracing a complex excursus through different times and places, thanks to the extraordinary variety of pottery classes and production identified.
The relevant information resulted from the analysis of this vast amount of materials have offered the opportunity to reconstruct the economic context related to the phases of life and abandondment of the domus, and to compare it to the general economic context that saw Rome at the centre of the commercial exchanges.
The examined materials have permitted the definition and interpretation of the spaces in the domus, the taste of their inhabitants, the phases of abandondment and, starting from these private aspects, the comprehension of the general economics trends, tracing step by step the growth, crisis and changes of the imperial economy.
Rivine – Crkvina: An Example of Production Quarters by a Church
Josipa Baraka Perica (University of Zadar)
Rivine – Crkvina: An Example of Production Quarters by a Church
Archaeological site Rivine – Crkvina is situated near Stolac in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Several archaeological campaigns were conducted there from 2011 to 2014, which brought to light an Early Christian church, a small cemetery within it and by it, and a villa rustica with extraordinarily well preserved remains of production quarters, most probably intended for the olive oil production.
The site fits very well to the topic of archaeology and economy in Antiquity because the church was built in the immediate vicinity of these production quarters with which - in one of its later phases - it was even architectonically conjoined.
The site has still not been published, so it is the intention of this poster to - as much as the spatial limits of the medium will permit - present it to the wide professional and scholarly community, as well as other similar sites from the Roman province of Dalmatia.
Centuripe: a roman bride over the river Simeto
Nicoletta di Benedetto (University Catania)
In Centuripe's municipal area, at about km 11 south-east away from the city, there are roman bridge's ruins that crossed the Simeto river along the route a Centuripis Aethnam of the important itinerary a Catina Thermis. The monument, about which we do not have any informations before the ending of the XVIII century, when Jean Houel painted it and described it as "une des plus belles que les Romain aient jamais faites dans ce genre" is sited 350 metres west from the current river course. These are some of the most impressive archeological ruins which belong to the imperial age in Centuripe.
They are visible today only the superstructure with part of the arches, the tympanums and the tread plan. The monument is made of opus caementicium and the facade's visible part is made of opus testaceum. Some architectural gimmicks and, in particular, the use of fired clay bricks as surface of the superior part of the bridge, whit the associative analysis, allow us to date the bridge from the II century a. D., when Centuripe reached an economical and monumental development which surely had a role of attraction on the ancient itineraries. The facing's bricks do not find any comparisons with the ones used in other public monuments in Centuripe and probably the bridge was built by workers who did not come from Sicily, who used imported materials.
The reconstruction of the organisation of space and work through iron-working microresidues distributional analysis: the case of the Roman smithy of Montebelluna (Treviso, Italy)
Leonardo Bernardi (University of Padua)
Montebelluna, one of the most important urban centre of Venetic population, during the Roman period became a secondary vicus directly connect to Acelum. Excavations in Posmon (a small area in Montebelluna), managed by the University of Padua (Dep. of Cultural Heritage) under the scientific direction of Prof. M.S. Busana, unearthed a Roman structure. The presence of a large amount of slags in an outer discharge and of iron-working microresidues in the South-Eastern room (G) clearly showed that this building was an iron workshop, working from the mid of 1st AD to all 2nd AD. The presence of microresidues in primary deposition context was a good opportunity to understand formation processes connected to smithing operations and try to reconstruct the organisation of space and work within the smithy. In order to maximize the information potential of microresidues, room G was excavated according to a grid, the soil strata with microresidues totally collected and, later in lab, the magnetic content was separated. This method allowed to draft distribution maps of the magnetic content of soil in relation with structures and stratigraphic evidences. The analysis of these maps allowed to recognise with certainty two preferential blacksmith’s working positions, to identify a square basement as the support for an elevated forge and to reconstruct the typology and the location of technical structures used by artisans.
The purchase of the collection Gargiulo in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples
Riccardo Berriola (National Archaeological Museum of Naples)
The purchase of the National Archaeological Museum of Naples of the terracottas collection of Raffaele Gargiulo (1785-after 1864), ceramist and restorer, leading figure of the Museum of Naples, neapolitan merchant of antiquity in the twenties and thirties of the 19th century. The proposed sale to the Museum of Naples is made on December 1852, but only after more than two years of hard deals it comes on May 29th 1855, for 6000 ducats. In the Gargiulo's collection the little plastic (443 specismens, 73.88%) is the most documented class, accounting for about three-quarters of the collection. At the top lie the towns, both in Apulia (Gnathia, Ruvo and Canosa) and Campania (Capua and Cales), most famous for the coroplastic products. If the archetectural material is dated from the end of the 6th century BC to 1st century AD, the coroplastic material lies mostly between the mid-4th century BC and the end of the 3rd BC. The pottery range between the 4th century and 3rd century BC, especially the plastic and polychrome decoration and the achromatic ceramic.
A New Attic LPG (10th century BC) Crater from Prinias (Crete) in the Context of the Coeval Attic Pottery Distribution
Giacomo Biondi (Consiglio Nazionale delle Rice)
Consistent fragments of a rare Attic Late Protogeometric crater (1.000-900 BC) come from the Tholos F of the Siderospilia necropolis of Prinias, in the centre of Crete. They belong to the southernmost exported specimen in the Aegean Sea and to the only one Attic Protogeometric crater so far found in the island. Here only its imitations - the so-called kraters of mainland type - were so far known. These were attempted from the Knossian Middle Protogeometric (920-875 BC) onwards and were a rare alternative to the type of Minoan origin, the deep bell-crater.
The Prinias specimen is the only one preserving also the profile of the foot. Form and decoration are intermediate between a well-known crater of the “Museum Antiker Kleinkunst” in Munich and another one found in Nea Ionia, Attica. The decoration allows us to attribute it to the same workshop that produced the latter.
The presence of such a crater in Crete will be studied in relation to the distribution of the coeval Attic ceramics in the island and in the rest of the Aegean Sea.
La ceramica laconica figurata dal deposito votivo di piazza San Francesco a Catania
Giacomo Biondi (Consiglio Nazionale delle Rice)
Il deposito votivo di un santuario di Demetra a Catania, recuperato negli anni Cinquanta dello scorso secolo da Giovanni Rizza, comprende un vasto e ricco campionario delle ceramiche circolanti nel Mediterraneo durante il VI secolo a.C. Tra queste, c’è un consistente nucleo di ceramiche laconiche a vernice nera e figurate. Saranno presentate quelle figurate, sia a silhouette piena sia “a figure nere”, tutte appartenenti a vasi potori.
Il loro esame e l’attribuzione a singoli pittori o botteghe consentiranno di aggiungere ulteriori tasselli al quadro di distribuzione già elaborato da altri studiosi.
Differenti abitudini di consumo nell' Impero Romano del III sec. d.C. contesti a confronto
Gloria Bolzoni (Università degli studi di Sale)
Tra gli indicatori archeologici che possono essere utilizzati per indagare le società antiche, la ceramica è certamente quella che fornisce maggiori informazioni di vario tipo, commerciali ed economiche ma anche socio-antropologiche, che permettono di inquadrare la cultura materiale di un luogo in una sfera culturale definita. È questo il motivo per cui i contesti ceramici devono essere studiati da diverse prospettive e sempre riferiti ad un sistema antropologico e sociale, la cui definizione è spesso sfuggente.
In questo poster si prenderà come punto di riferimento un momento cruciale della storia del Mediterraneo romano, ossia l’età severiana, nella quale si possono riconoscere le radici di una transizione non solo economico-commerciale, ma anche sociale e culturale, nell’impero romano mediterraneo. Si metteranno in relazione diversi contesti ceramici riconducibili a questo periodo, cercando di volta in volta di definirne la sfera d’influenza culturale e commerciale/economica, in modo da delineare in modo più netto i confini dei sistemi sociali cui esse fanno riferimento in questo periodo di forte transizione.
Römische Malereifunde aus dem Saarland: Überlegungen zum "Lokalstil"
Diana Busse (Universität zu Köln)
Mein an der Universität zu Köln laufendes Dissertationsprojekt behandelt Malereifunde aus den römischen Villen, die auf dem Gebiet des heutigen Saarlandes gefunden wurden. Diese Region stellt ein Desiderat in der Provinzialrömischen Malereiforschung in Deutschland dar.
Das Untersuchungsgebiet liegt im Südwesten Deutschlands an der Grenze zu Luxemburg und Frankreich und wird u. a. durch Flüsse wie die Mosel und Saar geprägt. Zunächst von den Treverern im Nordwesten und den Mediomatrikern im Südosten besiedelt, wurden die Gebiete nach der Eroberung Galliens durch Caesar Teil des Imperium Romanum. Am östlichen Rand der Gallia Belgica, an der Grenze zur Provinz Germania Superior, lagen die städtischen Zentren Augusta Treverorum/Trier und Divodurum/Metz in unmittelbarer Nachbarschaft.
Neben der Aufnahme des weitestgehend unveröffentlichten Bestandes an Malereifunden aus dieser Region, wird deren chronologische Einordnung sowie eine Bewertung der Funde nach ikonografischen, sozialen, ökonomischen sowie regionalen Gesichtspunkten angestrebt. Als Ergänzung zum Themenschwerpunkt des Panels 3.22 ("Local styles or common pattern books in roman wall painting and mosaics") sollen in einem Poster das Projekt und erste Beobachtungen zum "Lokalstil" präsentiert werden, die wiederum die Grundlage für Überlegungen zur Existenz und Arbeitsweise von Werkstätten bilden können.
A monumental structure at the riverfront. Archaeology and architecture of the Felicitas Iulia Olisipo cryptoportic (Lisbon, Portugal)
Ana Caessa (Câmara Municipal de Lisboa)
The discovery in Baixa Pombalina of a flooded subterranean building consisting of a complex of vaulted galleries dates back to the end of the 18th century, after the great 1755 earthquake, when it was recognized of Roman period. Unconsciously used as a cistern even before its discovery, it was subject to countless interpretations until it has been consensually recognized as a cryptoportic, in the last quarter of the 20th century. The current dynamics of urban rehabilitation of Lisbon historic center and the interest of the local administration in the valorization of the city archaeological heritage promoted an investigation and conservation municipal project which will lead to the opening of the monument, now equipped with an interpretation center. Since 2015, this project has created numerous possibilities for the scientific study of the monument, namely through archaeological interventions and rigorous architectural surveys (almost impossible to accomplish till then). The results of the investigations undertaken up to now together with the rest of the archaeological information about Lisbon at the Roman Period enable us, at last, to know about the construction’s timeline of the of the building, about the technical contingencies of its construction and to suggest proposals for its function and urban integration at the ancient river front as a monumental port structure in a city with a commercial vocation that was a platform between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic.
Understanding old and new evidences of sacred ways in Caria and Lycia
Erika Cappelletto (Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Baden Württemberg)
The project I am going to present in this venue is in its early stage and represents a side “venture” be-side my work in the cultural heritage but I think that giving my work experiences in Turkey I am real-ly into the topic and overall picture.
The project goals are, first, to create an exhaustive catalogue and account of the evidences regarding sacred ways between cities and extra- urban sanctuaries in the Hellenistic/Roman time in Caria and Lycia; secondly their study and analysis considering some defined aspects, namely space and ritual, and in the end a typological and stylistical comparison among the evidences.
The research is divided into four parts. The first part introduces the theoretical base used for the analy-sis meaning the concepts of ritual and space used in a phenomenological approach. The second part includes the catalogue with the evidences of the chosen case studies with the relevant features as the route itself, buildings, fountains, fortifications and settlement along the way including also a spatial component (GIS) and as well the architectural and stylistic comparison between the examples. The third part covers the evaluation of the ways in the light of the theoretical base while the last section provides an overall assessment of the factors used for the analysis.
The dolia in the wine producing installations in Early Roman Gallia Narbonensis
Charlotte Carrato (University Montpellier 3)
The dolium is a ceramic storage jar of Greek and Etruscan origin, and is the largest container ever used in the ancient world. It appeared in Gaul during the fourth century B.C., became increasingly widespread until the first century B.C., and then flourished during the Early Empire. At that time, jars were installed in large storehouses and their capacity ranged from 600 to 2,500 l, ensuring the storage of significant quantities of wine.
This great tool is at the heart of the wine pruducing process that is why its study informs us about numerous aspects of the antique wine economy in Gaul. For example, the composition of the wine storehouse, made of new dolia or second-hand ones, shows trade channels and economic logic of each establishment. The arrangement of dolia and wear also offers a vision of their use and of the internal organization of the production. Finally, the marks of capacities and the estimations of stored volumes allow to study the evolution of storage capacity.
A significant number of dolia were discovered at early agricultural sites from the Roman period in Narbonese Gaul, following the expansion of viticulture during the course of the first century A.D. The compiled data from 70 sites spread over the Pyrenees and the Italian border, allows for the first time to grasp the overall of this phenomenon at provincial level.
Multidisciplinary Researches at Myrina and Gryneion in Aiolis-Turkey
Murat Çekilmez (Adnan Menderes University)
A new archaeological survey project was started by the Adnan Menderes University at Myrina and Gryneion in 2015. Myrina and Gryneion are archaeological resources: a well-preserved and almost completely unexplored ancient city, lying on the seaside in Aiolis/Western Turkey. The Myrina and Gryneion Archaeological Surveys are an interdisciplinary research project aiming to understand how populations adapt to local conditions dictated by environmental constraints. Major objectives of survey researches at Myrina and Gryneion are to clarify the long-term history of the site. Our primary fieldwork goals were to conduct intensive survey at ancient city of Myrina and Gryneion. Field work surveys were started in 2015. On the other hand laboratory work focused on refining the ceramic typology; efforts concentrated also on establishing a centralized database system to manage and eventually make public all project files. 2015 program yielded significant quantities of pottery including a representative sample of the typical Hellenistic and Roman wares. One interesting result about Myrina and Gryneion are the lack of monumental architectural remains. Preliminary results suggest that the large architectural blocks remain underground. Examination of nearby villages suggests that they were not extensively reused in modern buildings.
Glass Beads from Apollonia Pontica. Chronology and Types
Mila Chacheva (Sofia University)
From ancient times until present-day, glass beads have always been fashionable trinkets. Their small size and variety of colours, shapes, and motives predefined their success in the Mediterranean. The Black Sea region in Classical and Hellenistic periods was not isolated and the influx of various glass beads with other imported goods is not unexpected. The poster aims to present the diversity of these beads and to offer some chronological observations. What is important for the known beads from Apollonia is that in most cases their provenance is from burials, i.e. from closed contexts. They could contribute for narrowing the proposed dates and also throw some light on the use of these small colourful items. One or several glass beads are most often found among beads of other materials and pierced sea-shells in the Classical strings, while in the Hellenistic Period а general change is observed. Splendid strings with dozens of glass beads of various new types appear in some graves in the Ionian colony. It was a thriving period for the glass bead industry and this fashion trend is well attested in the West Pontic cities, including Apolonia Pontica.
Economy of Cult – Examples from Macedonia during the Roman Period
Kalliopi Chatzinikolaou (Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki)
The issue of the possible economic benefits of the sanctuaries that derived from donations or offerings is examined in specific examples from Macedonia during the Roman period.
A) The production of vine is an economic benefit of a sanctuary that derived from a donation to Zeus Hypsistos. A votive stele from Upper Macedonia (Eordaia) (2nd-3rd century AD) depicts the vine-grower Chrysseros (Χρυσέρως) offering two rows of vines from his property to Zeus. Vine offerings to various deities are also known from other areas of Macedonia. The most distinctive example is an inscription of the 3rd century AD from Thessaloniki, whereas there are much more similar offerings in Asia Minor.
B) A large number of manumission acts comes from the sanctuaries of deities in Central and Western Macedonia (Merides). They concern the donation of slaves, who will eventually offer their services to the sanctuary, probably fulfilling in this way a master’s promise to the deity or paying a debt or a loan. The increase of the manumission acts of slaves after the 2nd century AD at sanctuaries with wide popularity is generally observed in Macedonia. This special phenomenon is possibly related to the management of slaves as an asset and the sanctuaries’ financials.
C) A number of examples of the sanctuaries’ savings comes from the second use of the monuments mainly due to the lack of the material (stone). The sanctuary possibly participates in some way.
A mortuary testimony as a guide for a society's economic evaluation. Case study: the establishment of Protogeometric Stamna, Aetolia, Greece
Olga Christakopoulou (Ephorate of Antiquities of Achaia)
This presentation refers to the study of burial architectural diversity and mortuary practices at Stamna, Greece in the Protogeometric period, in order to reconstruct burial customs, as well as to define or re-establish social hierarchy and relations as a guide of economic practices of this specific social group. The establishment as well as the maintenance of power for this population who had control of a key geographical location, were of vital importance to their general organization. A settlement of this size ought to control the broader area so as to ensure adequate supply as well as appropriate security from external enemies who would wish to benefit from its strategic location, aiming, among others, at controlling commerce. The Protogeometric Cemetery of Stamna includes a long dotted necropolis of a well-structured population, designed to fully exploit the space, creating a perfect cohabitation model, attached to the opportunities and potential of the region.
Particular clusters of graves, of the most prominent of the clans that comprised a tribe, give us the evidence of complete mortuary patterns and mostly the role the elites played in structuring strong social relationships. The interpretation of the political and economical structure of the population after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization, guides us in the awareness of its peculiarity, which is based on its own, familiar context of values.
A phase of the wine trade process on the east coast of Hispania Citerior: The production of Pascual 1 and Dressed 2-4 parvae amphoras
Enric Colom Mendoza (Institut Català d'Arqueologia)
In a recent revision of materials deposited in the museums, we were able to verify the existence of a new variant of wine amphora production of the Pascual 1 kind in the east coast of the ancient Hispania Citerior, which corresponds to the current Catalunya and north of the País Valenciano. It is a variant smaller in size than the standard form, although it presents its own morphological characteristics and a better weight/capacity ratio, which we have been able to document in several figlinae, especially in the area close to the mouth of the Ebro River.
In Sagunto, located in the País Valenciano, the existence of amphorae similar to form Dresses 2-4, which are smaller in size and we may call Dressel 2-4 parva, has been documented for quite some time. We believe that the production of both variants is contemporary; hence, their study allows us to unveil a new aspect of the production and commercialisation of wine amphora in the east coast of the ancient Hispania Citerior, which we can set chronologically in the Augustus times, towards the change of era.
Definition, analysis and interpretation of a new typology of the Roman house: the tetrastyle courtyard house , a domus with a hybrid cultural conception sheltered by a global civilization of antiquity
Ada Cortes (University Rome "La Sapienza")
In the recent decades, some studies have found a particular typology of Roman house in different parts of the Empire. This typological feature is the result of a hybrid house scheme between the Greek and Roman conceptions of the house. The new typology provisionally named “Porticated Courtyard House” has been observed in different Roman cities with a Greek past, but in different geographical contexts and chronologies. This type of home, with its variants, has not been enough analysed by the Roman domestic architecture studies. There are still many Roman cities with a Greek past which private architecture has not been thoroughly studied.
The study of a domestic unit enable us to approach issues vital to understand the private sphere of ancient societies, such as the relationship between the individual and the society, the family and the state, production and consumption or macroeconomics and microeconomics. It is therefore necessary to establish and document accuracy the various households that existed in antiquity to better understand the first stage of any cultural society. In this case a house that has a cultural exchange for the formation of its scheme and its role in the society in which it has been developed.
The aim of this poster is to present de state of the art of this domestic architecture topic and the current progress of this research.
On the Chronology of the Earliest Greek Metallurgy in Apollonia Pontica
Margarit Damyanov (Nationalmuseum Sofia)
Apollonia in the Black Sea (present-day Sozopol on the Bulgarian coast) was founded by Milesian settlers in the late 7th c. BC. In addition to the excellent harbour, the first safe stop after the Bosporus, the site had one more advantage – its proximity to the metal deposits in the nearby hills of Medni Rid (Bulgarian for “Copper Ridge”). The exploitation of these riches was a major factor for Apollonia’s prosperity in the Archaic and Classical periods, culminating in the colossal bronze statue of Apollo, erected in the second quarter of the 5th c. BC. Since 2009, investigations on the small offshore island of St. Kirik revealed the main temenos of Apollonia, as well as traces of the Archaic settlement. Observations of various structures (remains of dwellings, pits, etc.) enable specifying the chronology of the earliest metallurgical activities there. Practically all contexts have yielded slag and other evidence of metal processing. Pieces of slag were even used as insulation of the floors of some of the early houses, and a bipartite structure has been provisionally interpreted as a metallurgical workshop. The poster will focus on the pottery from some of these contexts in order to explore when the Greeks got access to the copper deposits of Medni Rid.
The Spartan Austerity through the Laconian Iconography during the Late Archaic Period
Adrien Delahaye (University Paris Sarbonne)
The ancient literary sources from the Classical period depict Sparta as an austere and conservative city, almost with no diachronic evolution. Nevertheless, these testimonies contain many contradictions and the archaeological evidence for the archaic period reveals a city at once quite different than the general view on Sparta and at the same time quite similar to many other contemporary greek cities. Many scholars have contributed in the last 30 years to renew the Spartan studies and especially the question of the austerity. But many problems remain to relate the history of Sparta and its artistic productions, the so-called “Laconian Art”, as R. Förstsch has underlined it. Therefore, which links can we establish between these products and the Spartan society, supposedly composed by equal landowners entirely devoted to war and the service of the polis ? Can we discern any trace of this austerity in the Laconian art ? Some attempts have tried to link the decline of the artistic production at the end of the 6th century to the establishment of an austere way of life. The study and the contextualization of the laconian iconography, combined to the consideration of the identity of producers and consumers, could give us a key to understand the reality of the Spartan austerity.
Digital solutions for Virtual Reconstruction in Archaeology
Emanuel Demetrescu (Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali Roma)
Virtual reconstruction is an archaeological matter that began a digital matter only in the last decades. Virtual (from the Latin term virtus), is a synonym for “potential” and expresses the likelihood of a certain artefact having existed in the past. Despite a diffuse commonplace, the virtual reconstruction is not only a digital matter: it started long before the introduction of the computer, both in terms of methods and practice of research. Nevertheless, the digital solutions provide more and more improvements to the virtual reconstruction applications in terms of new methods and innovative solutions for the visualisation.
The paper will describe the last methods and digital techniques including the stratigraphic approach to virtual reconstruction through the Extended Matrix. The Extended Matrix formal language (see http://osiris.itabc.cnr.it/extendedmatrix/) is a tool for virtual reconstruction in archaeology developed to help specialists to make scientific data driven reconstructions and rich virtual environments connected in a convenient way with the archaeological record collected on the field. It organises 3D archaeological record so that the 3D modelling steps are smoother, transparent and scientifically complete. The paper will show also some practical examples of virtual reconstruction performed using the Extended Matrix workflow in order to highlight the integration of this tool during the on site creation of the archaeological record.
Das Römergrab von Köln-Weiden, eine virtuelle Rekonstruktion
Eckhard Deschler-Erb (University of Cologne)
Die Grabkammer von Köln-Weiden befindet sich ca. 9 km westlich der Kölner Innenstadt direkt an der antiken Fernstraße (via belgica), die von der Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium in Richtung Kanalküste führte. Sie dürfte zu einem der reichen Gutshöfe aus dem direkten Umfeld der Koloniestadt gehört haben, dieser Gutshof ist allerdings bis heute noch nicht nachgewiesen. Die vom 2. bis 4. Jh. genutzte Grabkammer selbst gehört zu den am besten erhaltenen und am besten ausgestatteten Anlagen ihrer Art nördlich der Alpen. Zur Ausstattung der mit Nischen versehenen Kammer zählen unter anderem zwei steinerne Korbstühle, zwei Klinen mit Marmor-Inkrustationen, ein reliefierter Sarkophag aus Carrara-Marmor und insgesamt drei Büsten (zwei weiblich, einer männlich), wohl der Gutsbesitzerfamilie.
Für die Poster-Session soll auf Grundlage eines Laserscans der Grabkammer eine 3-D Visualisierung gezeigt werden, die es ermöglicht, sich über eine VR-Brille, virtuell in die Grabkammer zu begeben. Die interaktive Simulation soll die Grabkammer greifbar und mit Hilfe von weiterführenden Informationen verständlich machen. Interessierten Besuchern wird es ermöglicht einen Blick in das Römergrab von Köln-Weiden zu werfen.
Issues in Late Hellenistic and Roman public health in Cyprus
Roman Empire had great cities with increased number of population and immigration. Apparently one of the major causes of epidemics was the high level of immigration that brought new pathogens in the cities. One of the most important aspects of Roman public health is the evolving of different diseases from one place to another. This study explores some of the issues of public health in late Hellinistic and Roman period in Cyprus.
Harbors are considered by historians and archaeologists as “hot places” of different endemic and exotic infectious diseases. Malaria is one of the first disorders affected Hellinistic and Roman Paphians. that is further discussed. In addition syphilis and leprosy were common diseases that were transferred from travelers to the island. Research in the areas of Tropical and Travel medicine concluded that there must be a genetic association between anaemias and malaria. Zoonoses, animal derived diseases, have been spread to humans and influenced human evolution in Cyprus. For certain people leaved beside with their domesticated animals from the Late Roman period until modern times. Until the latest century, zoonoses were persistent in Cyprus society due to the custom of animals and humans sharing dwellings. This custom was catastrophic for Roman Cypriots leading to tuberculosis, echinococcosis and brucellosis. This study presents the findings of excavations and a medical and pathophysiological connection of the findings with the epidemics.
Der Handel und die Verteilung des spanischen Olivenöls Richtung Gallien und Germanien zwischen dem 1sten und dem 3ten Jh. n. Chr. Erste Forschungsergebnisse
Corinne Dubler (University Montpellier 3)
Der folgende Betrag beabsichtigt, die Dissertation “Le commerce et la diffusion d’huile de Bétique vers les provinces des Gaules et des Germanies (Ier-IIIe s. ap. J.-C.)”, die an der Universität Paul-Valéry/ LabexArchimède in Montpellier durchgeführt wird, vorzustellen.
Durch den römischen Handel werden voneinander abseits gelegene Regionen des Imperium Romanums miteinander verbunden. In diese Handelsströme integriert sich auch die Dressel 20 Amphore, emblematischer Vorrats-und Transportbehälter, des in der römischen Provinz der Baetica hergestellten Olivenöles. Der epigrafische sowie historische Reichtum dieser Amphoren gibt uns die Möglichkeit, eine umfassende Studie über den Handel dieses zentralen Mittelmeerproduktes auf provinzieller und interprovinzieller Ebene durchzuführen. Um die Organisation und Funktionsweise dieses Warenaustausches zu verstehen, wurde eine geografisch grossflächige und quantitativ solide Studie angelegt. Diese untersucht die Verbreitung des Olivenöles in Gallien und Germanien, aufgrund der vor Ort gefundenen Amphorenstempel.
Das Ziel dieser Dissertation ist die Erstellung eines interaktiven, elektronischen Onlinekatalogs der gefundenen Stempel (zurzeit über 5300 Exemplare) und die daraus folgende Auswertung des Materials. Schlussendlich sollen die historischen Fakten mit den archäologischen Daten verglichen werden, um den Fragekomplex rund um den Olivenölhandel zwischen der Baetica und den nordwestlichen römischen Provinzen zu beantworten.
Puteoli between East and West: new data for the late Republican Age
Renata Esposito (University Napels Federico II)
The archaeological excavations carried out since the Nineties of the last century in Pozzuoli, Rione Terra, (the promontory on which the colony was situated), gave important informations about the Phlegrean city in the late-republican age; the new data concern monumental architecture and topography of the ancient city and contribute to the reconstruction of the economic history of Puteoli thanks to the conspicous quantities of pottery found.
The archaeological documentation confirms literary and epigraphic sources and adds new data on the commercial and productive relationships of Puteoli with the Campanian cities, expecially those located in the Bay of Naples and on the circulation of goods and commercial relationships between the Phlegrean city and the main Mediterranean harbours.
This paper is focused on some contexts of the late Republican Age (first half II - first half I century B.C.), useful for the reconstructions of routes and trades.
Un edificio sulle sponde del Tevere: testimonianze produttive e commerciali nella basse valle tiberina
Stella Falzone (Centro Studi Pittura Romana Ostiense)
Dal 2005 in via delle Idrovore della Magliana (Roma) indagini archeologiche della ex Soprintendenza Speciale ai Beni Archeologici di Roma hanno portato all’individuazione di un edificio di 4 vani (di ca 250 mq), realizzato con scheggioni di tufo legati da argilla, conservati per un’altezza m 2 e di cui sono state evidenziate due fasi costruttive (tra il V e gli inizi del IV sec. a.C.). All’esterno dell’edificio sono riferibili alla fase più recente pavimentazioni in ciottoli di fiume, un pozzo e un lungo muro di contenimento delle acque. Il rinvenimento di lastre e scheggioni di tufo misti a numerosi fittili sono da ritenersi l’esito della distruzione alluvionale dell’edificio stesso e probabilmente di una struttura in funzione di un approdo sul lato destro del Tevere. La presenza di tali manufatti a ridosso del fiume, associata ad ingenti quantità di frammenti ceramici caratterizzati da un’ampia tassonomia tipologica, consentono di ipotizzare una preminente funzione di stoccaggio di materiali lungo il corso del Tevere. Inoltre, il cospicuo numero di frammenti ceramici interpretabili come scarti di lavorazione e la presenza di distanziatori e di probabili piani di cottura nell’area esterna dell’edificio appaiono come indicatori di un’attività manifatturiera. Queste evidenze consentono di acquisire nuovi elementi utili alla comprensione della natura degli insediamenti del territorio posti sul lato destro la bassa valle del Tevere, recentemente rinvenuti e in corso di studio.
Les iconographies de Psyché sur les monuments antique du Liban
Zeina Fani Alpi (Lebanese University Beirut)
Personnification de l'âme chez les Grecs, Psyché fut introduite au Liban dès la période hellénistique. Sur les terres cuites de Kharayeb, elle figure en couple avec Éros. Comme l'indique son nom grec, Psyché peut alors apparaître en papillon. À Kharayeb toujours, une terre cuite montre Éros qui retient contre sa poitrine un papillon.
Nous retrouvons l'iconographie de Psyché assise pensive devant la mort, avec des variations multiples, sur des cippes et des sarcophages de Sidon d'époque romaine.
Parmi ces iconographies communes au Liban, il faut distinguer trois cas. D'abord, la grotte de Mogharât el Khan où trois médaillons représentent l'épisode du sacrifice de la mythologie grecque de Psyché. Sur le linteau du temple de Sfiré, on voit Éros abandonner Psyché. Enfin, une mosaïque de Byblos montre un jeune homme (Éros) dirigeant son arc vers une jeune fille ( Psyché) qui protège son coeur de sa main.
La mythologie grecque d'Éros et de Psyché semble donc s'être parfaitement implantée au Liban hellénistique et romain, et cette acclimatation suppose une singulière capacité d'assimilation du milieu oriental.
Measuring the Potentials and locating Tourism centers in Kohgiloyeh and Boyer Ahmad
Hadi Faraji Cheshmeh Zangi
Tourism, as a European industry is considered as one of three money making jobs in the world, but in Iran it hasn`t prospered yet. Since the basis for many tourism activities is natural attractions, ecotourism is in focus of attention for researchers who process the interactional relation between human being and environment. The implementation of tourism projects necessitates an exact recognition of potentials and limitations in the regions. After the advent of GIS (geographic information system), suitable places for tourism were recognized and located. In this research, necessary substructures were designed in 5 and 10- year periods to develop tourism in the province in accordance with the standards of culture and tourism heritage organization. Then we applied topographic conditions of different fields based on systematic and practical method. SPSS software was used to analyze the data and ARC GIS was applied to analyze locations and establishments of specific points on the map. GIS was used to locate suitable attractions, suggested substructures in the cities in Kohgiloyeh and Boyer Ahmad, and then suggested tourism services map was designed for each city. The results showed that about half of tourism attractions in this province haven`t been located properly and lack tourism services and facilities, although they have many good potentials.
Key words: tourism, GIS (geographic information system), measuring potentials, locating, Kohgiloye and Boyer Ahmad
Is radiocarbon dating a useful tool for Classical Archaeology?
Ricardo Fernandes (Max Planck Institute Jena)
Essential to historical research is the availability of reliable and precise chronologies. This is often achievable within Classical Archaeology given the abundance of written sources and well-datable artefacts. However, chronological uncertainties may persist when contexts are poor in datable remains, the stratigraphy is unclear or has been disturbed, or when organic artefacts (e.g. bone) are decontextualized. Under these and other circumstances one can pose the question: is radiocarbon dating a useful tool for Classical Archaeology?
Within this paper, the basis of the radiocarbon dating method will be presented and its principal weaknesses and strengths discussed. Particular attention will be given to the importance of secure contextual associations and of a reliable stratigraphy, quality assessment of datable organic samples, and how the radiocarbon calibration process impacts on chronological precision. Following this, chronological Bayesian models will be introduced. These models allow for the combination of multiple sources of chronological information (e.g. radiocarbon dates, stratigraphic sequences, typology) leading to more precise chronologies of artefacts or events.
Finally, new radiocarbon results from excavated Roman archaeological sites will be shown. These examples serve to illustrate how an approach combining radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling can provide unexpected insights into the chronology of burial practices and artefact production and exchange.
Los ejércitos privados como manifestación de la continuidad del sistema económico provincial en Hispania desde el s. IV d. C.
Maria Fernandez-Baizan Portaencasa (University of Alcalá)
l fenómeno de los ejércitos privados ha sido definido, en contraposición al ejército regular. La utilización de este tipo de tropas muestra la continuidad del sistema económico provincial en Hispania desde al menos el s. IV d. C.: grandes predios repletos de villae (Arce, 2007, p. 43), en manos de una clase terrateniente. J. Arce señala, además, que el proceso de recluta por parte de los terratenientes hispanos, de cara a la organización de la resistencia frente a los conflictos de usurpación comunes en la época, fue “largo y costoso”, en referencia a la afirmación de Orosio de que reunieron efectivos durante mucho tiempo. Sin embargo, lo probable es que estos ejércitos no fuesen una creación ex novo, sino que existirían previamente, aunque, por su composición (esclavos, siervos, clientes, colonos, además de mercenarios, y otros procedentes de levas eventuales en los alrededores), no estarían en funcionamiento todo el tiempo. La cuestión de cómo habrían obtenido medios para armar y mantener a su ejército privado no es baladí, ya que, ni estaba permitido que los privados portasen armas (aunque se debe admitir la posibilidad de abastecerse con sus propios hornos de fundición) ni había una fabrica armorum en Hispania con la que abastecerse. Los estudios arqueológicos, en lo que se refiere a la circulación de armas por la Península, en esta cronología, muestran un gran auge de las lanzas como arma ofensiva, además de una importante ausencia de espadas.
Notas acerca del comercio de la terra sigillata hispánica de origen bético. El caso de los alfares romanos de Los Villares de Andújar (Jaén, España)
Isabel Fernández-García (University of Granada)
La ciudad romana de Isturgi (Los Villares de Andújar) albergó un importante barrio artesanal destinado a las manufacturas alfareras. Cuando la terra sigillata hispánica comienza a fabricarse se impone masivamente sobre el resto de clases cerámicas. El camino hacia la reconstrucción de las estructuras de comercialización de los alfares isturgitanos es una tarea compleja, no exenta de inconvenientes propiciados por la diversidad de los datos que manejamos. Un primer intento de aproximación a la difusión de los productos isturgitanos se centrará tanto en los sigilla como en las sintaxis compositivas de determinadas officinae cuyas creaciones con personalidad propia permiten diferenciarlas del resto de los alfares de sigillata hispánica conocidos tanto de la Baetica como de la Tarraconense. Sigilla de carácter epigráfico se documentan durante las dos primeras generaciones de alfareros productores de terra sigillata (época preflavia y flavia respectivamente). Igualmente en ambas generaciones se observa una gran riqueza ornamental en los productos decorados. La tercera generación (fines siglo I/siglo II), aunque menos conocida, se caracteriza por las marcas de entalle con la que ciertas officinae firman anepígrafamente sus manufacturas.
La forma López Mullor XLVII en vertederos altoimperiales de Augusta Emerita: Producción en paredes finas y en cerámica común
Begoña Fernández Rojo (University Leon), Verónica del Río Canedo
A través de esta propuesta de póster, pretendemos exponer los resultados obtenidos en la primera fase de investigación realizada sobre la forma XLVII de López Mullor documentada entre el repertorio material procedente de varios vertederos de cronología altoimperial de Augusta Emerita, (Badajoz, España).
Nuestro principal objetivo se centra en dar respuesta a la problemática surgida sobre el origen de esta manufactura cerámica enunciada, entrando en la disyuntiva sobre si su origen es local, o si, por el contrario, su centro de producción se ubica en otro punto geográfico, aunque su dispersión llegase a la capital lusitana y su entorno. El enfoque con que hemos abordado este tema es más bien estadístico, realizando un muestreo selectivo para corroborar la presencia y frecuencia de esta tipología en diversos vertederos de la ciudad augusta, donde hay constancia de una producción consistente de paredes finas.
Los resultados de los primeros contextos analizados son satisfactorios, estableciendo un porcentaje semejante a otras producciones genuinamente emeritenses. Si bien la tipología objeto de estudio se centraba hasta el momento en paredes finas, hemos encontrado que esta forma se realizaba en cerámica común romana con cierta asiduidad, llegando a alcanzar algunos de estos ejemplares unas dimensiones considerables. Este dato, podría ayudarnos a sustentar la hipótesis de la posible producción propia dado la recurrencia de esta forma en diversas pastas.
Ancient Cities. Creating a Digital learning Environment on Cultural Heritage
Stefan Feuser (Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel)
In the Strategic Partnership “Ancient Cities” (ERASMUS+) six European Universities cooperate in creating an innovative pan-European digital learning module for universities as well as a MOOC for a broader audience on an important part of the shared European heritage: Cities of the Greeks and Romans. The digital learning module will apply the didactic method of inverted-classroom, combining phases of self-learning by video lectures and introductory texts with online seminars let by a tutor/teacher. Both video lectures and learning material are open educational resources.
The target audiences of the MOOC are people interested in e.g. archaeology, art, architecture and history, stakeholders of e.g. tourism and heritage management as well as students and colleagues from the broader fields of e.g. architecture, art history, history and urban studies. It will foster the knowledge of and the awareness for ancient cities as shared European heritage in the broader public.
Thus, the project develops the quality of e-learning and implements a best practice example of how to use digital technics and didactic methods to improve teaching at universities. It illustrates how smaller academic fields in the Humanities can design their respective teaching environments in the digital age in a pan-European collaboration.
Die Kleinsiedlung Babunja bei Apollonia (Albanien). Ein Beitrag zur Kolonisierung am Adriatischen und Ionischen Meer
Über die kleine Küstensiedlung Babunja, zwischen Apollonia und Dyrrhachion/Epidamnos am Unterlauf des Apsos gelegen, gibt es keinerlei Schriftquellen. Feldforschungen zufolge war die Siedlung mit einer Befestigungsmauer umgeben und einem einheitlichen, rechtwinkligen Straßenraster mit langgestreckten Insulen von nur 15 m Breite gegliedert. Die Funde bezeugen, dass die Siedlung im 6. Jh. v.Chr. gegründet und im 3. Jh.v.Chr. wieder verlassen war und – indigenes, illyrisches Fundmaterial fehlt – die Bewohner Kolonisten gewesen sein müssen.
Um eine eigenständige Kolonie, die mit 5 ha Umfang gegenüber den korinthischen bzw. korinthisch-korkyräischen Gründungen in der Umgebung verschwindend klein war, wird es sich kaum gehandelt haben. Damit wird die Frage zur Struktur der Kolonisierung an den Küsten des Adriatischen und Ionischen Meeres aufgeworfen.
Emulation als Leitmotiv. Conspicuous consumption in der Casa della Fontana Piccola
Wolfgang Filser (Humboldt-University Berlin)
Das Atriumhaus ist benannt nach dem kleinen, mosaikverzierten Brunnen im Garten. Bekannt sind die großen Landschaftsbilder, die die umlaufenden Wände der Westseite des Scheinperistyls schmücken. Mit großer Detailfreude geschilderte Szenen maritimer Villenbebauung werden dort aufgelockert durch Figurengruppen, Inselchen, Berge und Waldstücke. Durch das große Format dieser Fresken unterscheiden sie sich von miniauristischen Villenveduten aus Pompeji, Oplontis und Stabiae, wo der Blick viel näher auf die dargestellten Meeresvillen geht, die wie mit dem Teleobjektiv aufgenommen erscheinen.
Sowohl der Brunnen mit seinen ihn schmückenden Kleinbronzen als auch die Villenlandschaft der Fresken ergeben, gemeinsam gelesen, ein ideologisches Gebäude, das mit den Instrumenten der Veblenschen Emulationstheorie bestens gedeutet werden kann. Die gebaute Architektur des Scheinperistyls zielt ebenso wie die darin befindliche (gemalte und gebaute) Ausschmückung auf die hinter dieser Wand am Golf von Neapel imaginierbaren Meeresvillen mit ihren variablen Ausstattungen und architektonischen Designs. In seltener Klarheit scheint hier auf, wie ein Normalbürger das für ihn unerreichbare Luxusleben der Großgrundbesitzer in Form von Bildern und Bildwerken in verkleinerten Formaten in sein Stadthaus integriert, oder andersherum gesehen: wie die ökonomische Macht der Superreichen sich in die Hausgestaltung darunter liegender sozialer Schichten fortsetzt und „emulativen Druck“ ausübt.
Late Roman Amphorae in Garrison’s Camp area, Nea Paphos: the most attested types and some considerations about
Mariagrazia Giuseppina Finistrella (University Bonn)
In this speech the mostly unpublished data about the most attested types of Late Roman Amphorae found during the excavations of University of Catania in Garrison’s Camp area, in the north-western part of the city of Nea Paphos, will be presented together with some considerations about their presence in the area. This contribution is part of my Research Project, in progress at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn from the end of 2014, about all the transport amphorae from Garrison’s Camp area and, generally, about the commercial routes in the Eastern Mediterranean through the study of this particular vessel found in different areas of the site of Nea Paphos. The analysis of the most important Eastern late Roman productions is useful for a deeper understanding of the transformations occurred in Garrison’s camp area starting from the IVth century AD, until the destructive arrival of the Arabs in the VIIth century AD. The presence in the site of a remarkable quantity of fragments especially from the Microasiatic, Aegean and Palestinian areas, proves the existence of numerous commercial links, regional and extra-regional, underlining the peculiarities of its particular role, both religious and residential, during the late Roman-early Byzantine time.
The Villa of Quinto Voconio Pollione in the suburbium of Rome: indicators of production from recent excavations
Agnese Livia Fischetti (University of Groningen)
In Ciampino, a Municipality close to Rome, is located the villa of Q. V. Pollione, one of the most important Roman Villa of the suburbium.
The villa is already known from the end of the 19th century, thanks to the documentation of R. Lanciani, who described the richness of the residential space, and provides a lot of detail about the building, the decorative elements and the marble statues that emphasized the status of its owner.
After more than one century the archaeological excavations in the same area brought to light more features linked to the pars rustica of this villa. These include a doliarium, tanks excavated in the tuff, located at different levels and connected together by lead pipelines, a big cistern close to the ruins of a pillar and perhaps the remains of a torcular.
Moreover, based on the recent analysis of the archaeological materials from the site, suggests that glass production took place inside the villa.
This poster presents a study of the productive space, in particular of glass, which has not been considered until now.
It aims to give a preliminary idea about the artefacts associated with the several production contexts identified and tries to understand the chronology of the production. Moreover, an assessment will be made whether the production was aimed to meet the demands of the villa or if it also aimed at the commercial market of the city of Rome, with which the site is connected through the via Castrimeniense.
La guerra, strumento che implica la realizzazione di nuove infrastrutture: il ponte sul Danubio
Anca Cezarina Fulger (Accademia di Romania in Rome)
L’intervento pone in primo piano l’analisi di fonti antiche letterarie, epigrafiche e iconografiche relativi alla costruzione del ponte sul Danubio. Se da un punto di vista archeologico l’indagine conoscitiva è tutta da impostare, migliore è la situazione dal punto di vista storico-interpretativo anche se, a tale riguardo, risulta poco credibile l’ipotesi che il ponte sia stato reso impraticabile dall’imperatore Adriano. Capolavoro dell’ingegneria antica e del genio di Apollodoro di Damasco, il ponte era la chiara manifestazione degli intenti di Roma: impiantarsi stabilmente sulla sponda nord del Danubio e preparare l’annessione dell’intera Dacia. Costruito per l’ordine dell’imperatore Traiano il ponte sul Danubio rappresenta una delle più spettacolare e significative opere costruttive di questo genere, una vera infrastruttura romana, sia per la sua grandezza, la qualità del lavoro svolto, ma più che altro per la sua brevità di esecuzione, tra la primavera del 103 e la primavera del 105 d.C. La costruzione del ponte, certamente deve aver avuto per il suo ideatore quanto per l’Impero Romano, un doppio significato: da una parte esprimere lo stupore per la grandezza del manufatto, il tempo di esecuzione e la manodopera impressionate impiegata, ma anche l’indiscussa supremazia romana verso ogni altro popolo, connotazioni bivalenti che conturano l’avanzata in deprecabile della civiltà latina verso l’Europa centrale, attraverso il processo di romanizzazione.
Economy of pottery production: new clues from Populonia
The discovery of a missing handicraft district in Populonia used in the production of ceramics has changed the perception of the local pottery industry. Local production had been hypothesized for common pottery and for some cups of Atelier des petites estampilles. These assumptions had not been supported by the necessary evidence of finding either production indicators or by chemical analysis.
Based on this hypothesis, a study was launched to determine the local pottery production in Populonia, with special attention being paid to the Hellenistic period. The results of this investigation permitted the recognition and classification of a variety of pottery spacers found. One bell-shaped and four ring-shaped spacers come from the so-called House of Seeds, close to the Populonian harbor. Three ring-shaped spacers uncovered from a layer dating to the Hellenistic period in the Necropolis of Casone. Another group of 15 pottery spacers – ring, bell, cylindrical-shaped – were recovered from the archaeological materials unearthed in Populonia, theseg have been stored in the archives of the ex-Soprintendenza Archeologia della Toscana.
The pottery spacers from Populonia are an important novelty: they have finally been identified as local productions. Thanks to this study we have plausible affirmation of the existence of a local ceramic industry: typology and contextualization of the spacers allow us to hypothesize some of the different pottery classes manufactured in this area.
Le pitture mitologiche a soggetto amoroso da Pompei ed Ercolano: riflessioni su tecniche di produzione, iconografie, contesti e significati
Marialucia Giacco (University Naples Federico II)
Alla luce dei più recenti filoni della ricerca iconografica e iconologica, l’intervento si propone di analizzare le modalità di selezione, ricezione e rielaborazione dei miti dell’amore raffigurati sugli affreschi che decoravano le abitazioni private delle città vesuviane.
Partendo dall’assunto fondamentale che, in ogni società e in ogni epoca, alle immagini è sempre sottesa la volontà di trasmettere un messaggio specifico, attraverso uno screening ragionato e complessivo dei motivi iconografici ricorrenti, si tenterà di definire le possibili ragioni alla base delle scelte figurative, della creazione di determinate sequenze e associazioni di immagini e di nessi tematici, nonché delle necessità auto-rappresentative dei committenti, in relazione alle diverse epoche storiche e ai diversi contesti socio-culturali.
Attraverso la disamina dettagliata e la scomposizione degli schemi iconografici utilizzati, si tenterà di individuare e definire l’allora corrente concetto di amore, in tutte le sue possibili manifestazioni gestuali, simboliche, espressive e, laddove possibile, emotive e psicologiche, ponendo lo studio delle singole iconografie in rapporto costante con i rispettivi contesti di destinazione e di fruizione e giungere così alla concezione dell’immagine, del suo significato e del suo contesto come unità polisemiche di un unico sistema di comunicazione, espressione dei valori e delle aspirazioni dei singoli o di u n’intera comunità.
The knowledge of classical food for babies in the Southern Italy through the analyses of organic residues from pottery
Maria Teresa Giannotta (CNR - Italian National Research Council), Mariateresa Lettieri (CNR – IBAM)
In the Greek funerary contexts, a peculiar pottery vase called “guttus” is sometimes found. The “guttus” is a closed vessel whit low base ring, globular or ovoid body, a short and narrow neck, a small rim, a vertical handle from below rim to shoulder; a spout is placed, at right angles with the handle, in the upper part of the body.
In the past, the function of this vase was attributed to pour oil into the lamps. However, the presence of these vessels mainly in infantile funerary goods, as proved by the contextual presence of toys, has led to debate about the actual function of the “guttus”.
In the southern Italy, this kind of vase is usually found in tombs, dated to 4th and 3rd centuries BC, from both the Greek colony of Taranto and the Messapian region.
In this study, chemical analyses (such as FTIR spectroscopy) were performed to investigate the presence and the nature of the contents in similar vases from tombs discovered in Manduria, near Taranto. The presence of residues due to milk-based foods accounts for the use in the nutrition of babies. The analyses allowed hypothesizing that ovine milk was used.
The results of our research contribute to reconstruct the dietary choices for babies and implement the understanding of the archaeological data related to diet in the Mediterranean classical world.
Jewellery from the Necropolis of Priniàs (Crete)
Rossella Gigli (Italian National Research Council)
I propose in this poster some preliminary remarks on the study of the precious ornaments found in the tombs of the Necropolis of Siderospilia at Priniàs (Crete) during the excavations conducted by the University of Catania since 1969. They consist mainly of small golden and silver artifacts - pendants, finger rings, earrings, placques originally applied to clothes - and by rock crystal, faience, hard stone beads, most of them belonging originally to necklaces. This group of precious items constitutes one of the most relevant complexes of materials of such type, comparable to those found in the necropolis of Knossos and Eleutherna. The presence of golden items inside the cemetery is able to provide a lot of information about the status and wealth of the inhabitants of the site just at the beginning of the first millennium BC, and can be symptomatic of contacts with abroad, in particular with Cyprus. Already in the depositions of the first phase of the necropolis gold is often associated with bronze objects. It is not unlikely that the very early examples have arrived in Priniàs from outside, following the flux of Eastern influences and imports that in this period seem seem to involve different aspects of the Cretan material culture.
Production and trade in the Roman Empire: the villa of Masseria Selvaggi
Emanuele Pio Guida (University Bari), Cosimo Damiano Diella (Università degli Studi di Firenze)
The excavations made by Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici della Puglia near Masseria
Selvaggi (Lucera, Foggia) between february and june 2002 showed a roman furnace which
produced tiles, bricks and amphoras with the inscription Q(incti) Cassi. Trough the analysis of big
amount and variety of materials found near the buried structure, which includes common fire-proof
and dining pottery, black painted pottery, thin wall pottery, sealed pottery, currencies, oyster shells,
chassis weights, vitreous paste and objects made up of glass, lead, bronze, iron and nacre, it’s
possible to deduce Quintus Cassius was the owner of a villa of late republic-early empire.
The interpretation of the archaeological evidence are increased by the lack of precise stratigraphy
and the absence of the survey of residential structures, but the topographical survey of site of
Masseria Selvaggi contextualized in the larger territory of Ager Lucerinus, the study of the furnace
and the analysis of thin wall pottery will point out the productive activities and the economical
relationships between the villa of Masseria Selvaggi and the other regions of Southern Italy in the
Late Republic and Early Empire.
Domestic Economies and Social Organization at Kastro Kallithea, Thessaly, Greece: an Integrated Approach
Margriet Haagsma (University of Alberta)
The so-called Kastro of Kallithea represents an urban center dating to the Late Classical and Hellenistic period in Thessaly, Greece. The 15th Ephorate at Larissa and the University of Alberta have worked together at this site since 2004. The project’s main goals are to establish a regional archaeological context for the social and economic transformations in Thessaly in the Hellenistic period which we study through the lens of the household in its urban-rural continuum. The past 13 years have seen the conclusion of the archaeological and architectural urban survey and excavations at the city’s agora and housing area which have provided important information on the city’s occupation span and role in regional economies.
Our poster will focus on the economic interaction between household, city and chora based on the results of the excavation of ‘Building 10’. Located on the eastern slopes of the site, Building 10 is a large structure, with a surface area measuring approximately 300 m2 (20m x 15m). The analysis of the architectural configuration and excavation data suggests that the building, constructed in the late 3rd or early 2nd century BCE, had a domestic function. We will present an overview of our approach towards the organization of domestic activities and the economic foundations of the household in which we place the artefact and ecofact assemblages in their geopolitical, economic and environmental contexts.
Breaking news! How a sherd’s fresh break can help to reconstruct the distribution patterns of African Red Slip Ware
Carina Hasenzagl (Ghent University)
African Red Slip Ware was produced in the Roman provinces in modern-day Tunisia and exported to the whole Mediterranean basin on a massive scale. It has long been used for tracing and explaining supra-regional trade. However, the economic link between the individual Tunisian production centers and the Mediterranean consumption sites has been rather neglected. Fundamental for reconstructing these links is to identify the exact origin of African Red Slip Ware – a task that frequently fails due to the controversial subdivision (A, C, D, E etc.) of African tableware and due to financial limitations for archaeometric analyses. Alternatively, fabric analysis is a tool to distinguish the products of Tunisian workshops by their specific microscopic features discernable on a fresh break.
Samples with archaeologically secured provenance from the pottery collection of the Dutch archaeologist Jan Willem Salomonson were used to characterize the tableware of several North and Central Tunisian workshops. Tracing these distinguished productions in selected Mediterranean consumption sites enables to reconstruct economic relations between the Tunisian producers and Mediterranean consumers. This contribution presents preliminary results of the distribution patterns of different Tunisian workshops in the consumption site of Pantelleria during late Antiquity.
The influence of the Tyrrhenian Group on Etruscan pottery
Julia Janicka (Catalan Institute of Classical Archaeology)
Etruria was a very attractive and competitive market for the Greeks to export pottery. Since the 6th c. BC we have proof of it, beginning with the Corinthian Group (early 6th c.), continued by the Tyrrhenian Group (from 575 until 530 BC), from a rival Attic market and followed by Nikosthenic amphorae (550-510 BC). The trade affected the domestic market and triggered a production of its own, the so-called Pontic Group (550- 500 BC) and the Caere Hydriai (530-510 BC). The pottery mentioned above was excavated since the beginning of the 18th c. with no acknowledgment for stratigraphy. My goal is to evaluat the impact of the Tyrrhenian Group on the Etruscan pottery by analyzing the iconographic style, inscriptions and shapes of the vases. Factors such as the shape, choice of mythical subjects and scene composition, general decorative scheme and noticeable Corinthian influence show a strong resemblance to the works of early Attic black-figure painters such as the C Painter, Kleitias, Lydos and Sophilos: artists who worked in Athens during the mid to late 570s BC. Furthermore, instances of Tyrrhenian Group specimens found in tomb excavations throughout southern Etruria show the Group reaching prominence during the mid-6th century BC. Why did the Etruscans favoured Greek pottery? What was their awareness of Greek myths? Was it in the buyers hands to request the iconography motives on the vases or was it imposed on them? These are the questions I will try to answer.
Seleukeia Gadara (Umm Qays, Jordanien) - ökonomische Aspekte einer hellenistischen Befestigung
Die Befestigung der Stadt Gadara in der Koile Syria lässt sich aufgrund der archäologischen Untersuchung in die erste Hälfte des 2. Jhs. v. Chr. datieren. Die ca. 240 m lange Südflanke mit Kurtinen, Türmen und Toren ist noch bis zu knapp 7 m hoch erhalten und zeichnet sich durch ein sehr regelmäßiges Quadermauerwerk und durch typologische und bautechnische Besonderheiten wie Pentagonaltürme und Segmentbögen aus. Die bauforscherische Analyse und die Untersuchung der wehrtechnischen Ausrichtung und Ausstattung erlauben es, das Verhältnis von wirtschaftlichen Vorgaben und dem Wunsch nach einer repräsentativen Ausformung zu evaluieren. Dabei zeigte sich, dass die Anlage maßgeblich von ökonomischen Aspekten bestimmt war. So war die auf einem modularen System basierende Bautechnik vor allem von den Erfordernissen eines rationellen Bauablaufes bestimmt. Die wehrtechnische Ausrichtung zeigt die Abkehr von einer ursprünglich verfolgten Strategie der aktiven Verteidigung, die ebenso wie die geringe Grundfläche Rückschlüsse auf die materiellen und personellen Ressourcen der seleukidischen Zentralmacht erlauben. Somit zeigt die Befestigung von Gadara trotz ihrer ausgereiften militärischen Funktionalität und ihrer hochwertigen Bautechnik die Abhängigkeit von wirtschaftlichen Bedingungen sowohl während der Bauzeit als auch während der Nutzung.
Die Vatergottheiten - Aussehen, Aufgaben Attribute. Die Problematik der ähnlichen Darstellung in griechischer und römischer Zeit
Eva Kanis (University Cologne)
Mein Promotionsprojekt mit dem Arbeitstitel „Die Vatergottheiten – Aussehen, Aufgaben, Attribute. Die Problematik der ähnlichen Darstellung in griechischer und römischer Zeit“ soll einen Beitrag leisten zu der Diskussion um die Interpretation antiker Darstellungen von bärtigen, männlichen Gottheiten. Die Relevanz des Themas besteht darin, dass es in der Klassischen Archäologie immer wieder zu kontroversen Diskussionen über die nahezu gleiche Darstellung der sogenannten Vatergottheiten Zeus, Poseidon, Hades und – ab dem 4. Jh. v. Chr. – Asklepios und Serapis kommt.
Ich möchte der Frage nachgehen, aus welchem Grund diese Götter, die auf den ersten Blick in so unterschiedlichen Wirkungsbereichen tätig sind, so ähnlich dargestellt wurden. Daraus ergibt sich weiterhin zum einen die Frage, ob ihre Wirkungsbereiche wirklich so ausdifferenziert waren oder ob es möglicherweise Überschneidungen in den Kompetenzen gab und zum anderen, ob Attribute grundsätzlich als einziges Differenzierungsmerkmal gewählt wurden oder ob es in bestimmten Bereichen, die zu ermitteln wären, das Bedürfnis gab, durch Physiognomie oder andere Charakteristika abseits der Attribute zu differenzieren.
New discovery of an urban winery in Rirha, Gharb Valley, Morocco (3nd century AD)
Mohamed Kbiri Alaoui (National Institute of Archaeology and Patrimony Sciences), Elsa Rocca (Université Paul Valéry UMR 5140-Archéologie des sociétés méditerranéennes) Charlotte Carrato (University Montpellier 3)
Since 2004, the archaeological programme at Rirha is exploring the remains of a major settlement in the Gharb plain in northern Morocco. The site – continuously occupied from the 5th BC to the 14th AD – provides the possibility to study the cultural identity of Mauri people in a diachronic perspective. In Roman times, the urban centre was integrated to the province of Mauretania Tingitana, at the boundaries of the Roman Empire. From this period, we especially know the eastern neighbourhood (Ensemble 1), along the urban wall, which has delivered the remains of a domus annexed to an urban producing facility.
This large production unit is composed of at least two presses equipped with their quadrangular press floor, the southern one – entirely excavated – is supplemented by concrete collecting basins and dolia. The whole system shows an exceptional preservation state due to a fire that has preserved the organic remains. This olive oil and wine installation – probably in use during the 2nd/3rd century – seems to have had several production phases, which the latest is clearly characterised by wine production.
This exceptional discovery allows for the first time to study wine installations in Maghreb with a multidisciplinary approach. Furthermore, it leads to reconsider viticulture’s place in the economy of Roman North Africa, where the majority of pressing structures is related to the olive oil production, whereas the wine production is perfectly demonstrated by textual sources.
Fleischkonsum und Umgang mit Schlachtabfällen im Kontext ökonomischer Formationsprozesse in Carnuntum, Österreich
Nisa Kirchengast (University Vienna)
Archäozoologisches Fundmaterial kommt bei Ausgrabungen oft in großen Mengen zu Tage. Tierknochen, können als Indikatoren für die Qualität von Mensch-Tierbeziehung, Ernährungsmuster aber auch für ökonomische Entwicklungen herangezogen werden. Für die Interpretation archäozoologischen Materials ist die Analyse des Umgangs mit tierischem Abfall von besonderer Bedeutung. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie ist die Analyse des Abfallverhaltens sowie der Deponierungsprozesse am römischen Fundplatz Haus 2 in Carnuntum. Basierend auf einem interdisziplinären Ansatz wird das archäozoologische Fundmaterial einer makroskopischen und quantitativen Analyse unterzogen. Besonderes Augenmerk wird auf Schlachtpraktiken und Umgang mit den entstehenden tierischen Abfällen gelegt.
Der Baukomplex Haus 2 in Carnuntum wurde in den Jahren 2003 bis 2005 im Freilichtmuseum des Archäologischen Parks Carnuntum fast vollständig freigelegt und eine Siedlungsphase vom späten 1. Jh. bis ins 4. Jh. n. Chr. rekonstruiert. Bei den Grabungen konnte auch archäozoologisches Fundmaterial geborgen werden, welches erst in der vorliegenden Studie einer eingehenden Untersuchung unterzogen wird. In erster Linie handelt es sich dabei um Schlachtabfälle von typischen landwirtschaftlichen Nutztieren der Region wie zum Beispiel Rinder, Schafe und Schweine. In dieser Untersuchung sowie der daraus entstehenden Masterarbeit werden die Befunde in Kontext ökonomischer Formationsprozesse gesetzt und entsprechend interpretiert.
Settlement dynamics in rural Sicily in Roman times
Rebecca Diana Klug (Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen)
The Agrigento-Hinterland-Survey was conducted from 2008 to 2013. The research area covers the territories of the modern communities Cianciana, Alessandria della Rocca, Bivona and Santo Stefano Quisquina, in total 274 km². 80 spots with roman ceramics were detected, 60 of these were surveyed intensively and were qualified as sites. The deeper research of the finds, predominantly ceramics, allows us, together with the size of the sites, the find density, and the quantity and quality of finds, to interpret the type or the functions of these sites, and to date them.
Beside some villae rusticae, in this area, we have located several farmsteads of different scale. In parts, the villae rusticae and the farmsteads are close together, especially the smaller farmsteads. Therefore, it is necessary to analyse the relationship between these sites to understand the settlement pattern and the settlement dynamics. However, we should not forget to consider the vici. Several of these are located in the research area.
In my paper, I will try to analyse the relationship and the dependencies between the vici, the villae and the farmstead to understand the use and therefore the settlement pattern of a rural area without a roman city as a centre.
The analysis of sites dating to the roman times is a good starting point conduct further research on Roman settlement patterns and settlement dynamics in Sicily.
Political-Economy Discourses in Metaphorique Construction of Greek Temple
Rifat Eser Kortanoğlu (Anadolu University)
The principal search for the presentation is what is the "Greek Temple" question. Presentation, what is the temple? What is the Greek Temple? Which discourse is the result? What discourse does it produce? Such as the questions themselves want to be. Within this framework, origins, meanings of the terms of naos, peribolos, temenos and bomos and the manner of producing the hierarchies created by those meanings in our minds become supplements to the structure of the text. Worshipping rituals of polytheistic religions and monotheistic religions and the difference between the sacred structures realized by those rituals have great role on the meanings given to the metaphoric structure of mass. The transformation between semantic fictions can only be attributed to the discontinuity of the architecture. Temenos has been the most fundamental space element of worshipping from the beginning. Peribolos is the wall lining the framework of sacred area. But it represents the hierarchy of discontinuity as a "parergon". Bomos is the worshipping itself. All three are essential elements of the Ancient Greek religious architecture. So, what is naos? When is it revealed? How does it come to the point where it would represent a civilization alone in addition to being the most inspired structure of Greek Architecture? How does it transform this singularity into a tradition surviving to date? And The Power, How it benefit produced of economic-political discourses of the Greek temple?
Work in progress. Trade depictions on the so-called topographical border of the "Yakto mosaic"
Since its first publication by Jean Lassus in 1934, scholars have been captivated by the “topographical border” of the late antique Megalopsychia mosaic from Yakto. It has generally been accounted as unique by its distinctive combination of architectural, figural and inscriptional layers, the exact reading of which still challenges the scholars. Three ,grenre scenes’ (a term originally established by Doro Levi) showing different labourers in pursuance of their trade might be of special interest. It is during the search for iconographic parallels which would help to identify these rather badly preserved and therefore hardly discernible images that one finally comes across the dissertation of Gerhard Zimmer (published 1982), in which he thoroughly concerned with the iconographic evidence of Roman trades, mostly on the basis of Roman funerary reliefs dating from the 1st cent. BC to the 3rd cent. AD. This leads to the following questions: Is there indeed less proof for trade depictions in Late Antiquity than for Classical Antiquity? Or is this lack of proof simply based on a lack of knowledge? The poster aims at illustrating in which way the topographical border hands down classical motifs concerning the depiction of trades and therefore functions as an important missing link for this sort of everyday life depictions in the 5th century.
Anaxyrides in the Greek Art
The poster aims at presenting the issue of west-Iranian trousers called anaxyrides and their representations in the Greek art. The period analyzed in the poster are the years from the 6th c. a.C. until the 4th c. a.C.
Anaxyrides were worn by the Medes, Persians, Armenians, Scythes and Cappadocians but also by the mythical Amazons and Arimasps. We base our knowledge about those Iranian trousers on literary records and Achaemenid and Graeco-Persian iconographical sources.
In the West, in the Classical period Greek aristocracy often incorporated items of Oriental dress into their own Greek costume. Nevertheless, anaxyrides were rejected in the Greek and Macedonian world. Even Alexander the Great who adopted many elements of the Iranian costume after 330 a.C. did not use anaxyrides. One of the goals of this poster is to present the thesis why trousers were not used by the Greeks and Macedonians.
And yet, anaxyrides were depicted in the Greek art of this period on various objects which is proved by the extant works of art. Persons wearing anaxyrides on those artefacts are the Iranians, Amazons, Scythes and Arimasps.
The poster will attempt at presenting a typology of anaxyrides depicted in the Greek art. I will divide the trousers into different types according to their shape and decoration and assign those types to different groups of people wearing them in the analyzed depictions and to the periods in which the depictions were created.
Commercial networks and prestigious goods exchange in the Oriental Mediterranean sea during Antiquity
David Laguna Palma (University of Granada)
This presentation is due to a huge interest and a need of trying to understand how diverse cultures -which experienced their born and devolopment around the Mediterranean sea during the Antiquity- were less hermetic than at first glance can be seem. It is going to show that this sea played a conductive role for the transferation of elements of all kind and from diverse areas within the territories, marking the development and evolution of each one of these cultures. On acount of the complexity and great extension, we will focus in the Oriental Mediterranean sea. Building our research upon an interdisciplinary methodology, it is going to be analised archaeological, pictorical and linguistic sources, which are testimonies of political, economic and cultural contacts between different worlds. In these relathionships, the Oriental Mediterranean sea was an essential place. In such a way, it is necessary to define the material conditions which made possible such interactions, as well as the maritime commercial routes. Ultimately, for getting close to this historical reality, it is going to be used a diversity of sources, with the final aim of throwing light to the societies and economies which were developed in this space, that was way more dynamic than previously thought.
Dietary Habits in Roman and Byzantine Palestine on the Background of Ecological, Demographic and Cultural Realities
Sina Lehnig (University Mainz)
Food is a basic human need and therefore a defining characteristic of all societies. Our diet
reflects the tight limits of our ecosystems, with their unique climates, soils, fauna and flora
on the one hand, and our cultural affiliations with their fasting rules and
traditions on the other hand. The aim of the presentation is to investigate dietary concepts in Palestine during the Roman and Byzantine period: Even today the working area is characterised by a diversity of ecosystems and cultural areas on a small space. From the fertile Carmel Mountains in the north, to the arid regions of the Negev, people had to face different ecological and social challenges to subsist. In the Roman and Byzantine period land use patterns and dietary habits were subject to continuous change due to political and religious transformations: An emerging Christian community mixed with the local pagan and Jewish population, and by the end of the Byzantine period the region was affected by the Arab Conquest. In this strong area of tension between environmental, demographic and cultural challenges, the investigation of past human diet is the key to decode how people responded to them. Therefore, faunal remains from archaeological sites of different ecological context, settlement size and cultural affiliation are selected for study. Their investigation will allow to compare dietary habits between different ecosystems, as well as between large towns, villages and rural farms.
Economic and social life in Illyria
Majlinda Liçi (University Tirana)
In this paper we will try to highlight some aspects of the economic and social life of the predecessors of the Albanians, the Illyrians. Illyrians as one of the oldest entities in the Balkans and Europe have attracted the attention of many Albanian and foreign scholars and have been subject of their studies and archaeological expeditions, intentionally, deepening the recognition of life, economic development, Illyrian civilization and collecting materials that prove the Illyrian-Albanian continuity.
This study, which analyzes documenting historical data and source materials, use descriptive research method to describe the characteristics of the Illyrians that had lived in a vast territory of the Western Balkans and organized into tribes and during the 4th-3th century BC some of these tribes strengthened their positions and dominated other tribes, creating monarchic state formations such as the Illyrian kingdom, the Dardanian kingdom, and state of Epirus. Despite this seemingly unrestricted tribal organization, they developed a culture that distinguished them from their Greek and Roman neighbours.
I also argue that Each of those tribes was characterized by cultural, social, environmental and economic particularities, as a result of their position, location, favorable or disadvantageous factors of relief and other economic factors. In general, the Illyrians engaged in activities such as agriculture, livestock farming, etc
Organization of space in the countryside of Attica: a new potters' workshop in the ancient deme of Aixonides Alai
Eftixia Ligouri-Tolia (Ephorate of Antiquities of West Attica)
The site of Aghios Nikolaos Pallon (Voula, Attica) comes under the auspices of the Ephorate of Antiquities of West Attica, Piraeus and Islands. Since 2011 excavation has brought to light substantial antiquities that cast light on our understanding of life in the coastal demes of Attica.
The site falls within the geographical boundaries of the ancient municipality of Alai Aixonides. Ongoing research testifies its continuous use from the classical up to Byzantine times. Part of a burial enclosure and remains of a road are dated to classical times. In Roman times operated an industrial facility comprising four kilns, two of which were built within the boundaries of the enclosure. East of the kilns lies a building complex consisting of thirteen rooms arranged around an open area. The kilns and the architectural remains point to the existence of a potter’s quarter. According to finds the complex was in use until late antiquity. Its location is nodal for commerce for it lies close to the ancient road that led from Athens to Sounion and close to the sea. Furthermore, its discovery has significantly enriched our knowledge about the organization and the economy in a coastal deme of Attica during Roman times and late antiquity, since it is the first pottery workshop discovered in the wider area. During the Byzantine period two small churches were erected on top of the classical enclosure and the workshop. Both belong to the type of single-aisled basilica.
Evidences about the production of black glazed ware in Parma during Republican age
Anna Rita Marchi (Soprintendenza Archeologia di Parma e Piacenza)
The recent archaeological excavations carried out at via del Conservatorio in Parma (2011-2017), beside putting in light part of an insula located near the south-western part of the walls of the Roman colonia of Parma (established in 183 BC), allowed to investigate part of a productive complex dated between late 2nd and 1st century BC, ie before the complete urbanization of the area occurred during the principate of Augustus.
In particular, evidences have emerged of at least two pottery kilns, one of which was surely used in its ultimate stage of life for the production of thin walled ware, a workshop with lathe and other structures functional to the processing and storage of the ceramic forms. To the south of the complex, a large pit filled with multiple discharges of different materials has been excavated: these materials were connected to the processing of vitreous pastes and animal bones, and mostly to the production of thin walled and coarse ware forms, including lids.
Interesting and totally unexpected was the discovery of numerous black glazed ware specimens, characterized by clear baking errors, beside to scraps of the same production: based on these evidences, it is therefore possible to hypothesize the existence in the area of a workshop specially crafted for the production of open forms and linked to a local context characterized by original aspects and stylistic and cultural contaminations coming from the Etruscan-Padan world.
Phoenician and Punic Malaka: centrality or periphery?
Víctor Martínez Hahnmüller (Ghent University)
The main purpose of this paper is to show the ancient topography and urbanism of the city with a reliable diachronic topographical model of the urban evolution of the city and its ground adaptation. It should be noted in this regard that Malaka is one of the few cities of Phoenician-Punic tradition in which has been documented, even incomplete in most of the cases, domestic structures, military walls, temples/sanctuaries, necropolis and industrial areas. Its unequal urban design stands in direct opposition to its control of the hinterland, where Malaka functioned as a main center of a big area in which mining, farming, livestock farming and fishing were usual activities for its rural sites. Last but not least, its important commercial role as main trade port of the Western Mediterranean, which important links with nearby cities (Iberian, Phoenician and Libian), influenced the urban topography of the city and, above all, its evolution.
Architecture as political and social investment in Late-Classical Ionia and Caria
Nicolò Masturzo (University Torino)
The paper aims at investigating building activity in Ionia and Caria under the Hekatomnid satraps. Since a long time this phase has been studied under the heading ‘Ionian Renaissance’ or ‘Ionic Renaissance’. W.B. Dinsmoor thought that the distinctive feature of this phenomenon was the new use of the Ionic Style after the 5th century stasis. This is only partially true. New discoveries and studies let appear the political weight of the Hekatomnid building activity in a different light. By employing the traditional Ionic order in the main core of their domain, the Carian basileis signalized perhaps an ideal membership to the Hellenic World. However, also different elements were used by them to qualify themselves in other cultural situations, as in Tegea or in Delphi. That the Hekatomnids court paid a special attention to the perception of stylistic choices by the civic élites of their satrapy, also appears clearly in the mixed order used in the Labraunda andrones. Certainly, we suffer from a lack of evidence from some important sites in Ionia, and also one of the main examples of the representative architecture of Caria, the Mylasa Mausoleum, has been till today only partially published. Despite that, the Hekatomnid building policy results the first and most organic attempt to realize in the West a kind of architecture which is functional to dynastic promotion: in all this, the Achaemenid models stayed only in the background.
Production centres and trade relations in the Early Empire. Analysis of the amphorae production from the Tarraconensis central coast: The ARCEA Project
Daniel Mateo Corredor, Juan Francisco Álvarez Tortosa and Rubén Santana Onrubia (University of Alicante)
Over the last years, the scientific community has shown a great interest in the studies focused on the production and trade of Roman amphorae in ancient Hispania, as evidenced by projects such as CEIPAC, Amphorae ex Hispania or Amphora Project. However, the advances in the knowledge of Hispanic amphorae productions have been uneven, being Tarraconensis northern coast and Baetica the best-known areas. On the contrary, amphorae production of the Tarraconensis central coast is less known, despite the fact that these containers would be traded in the western empire, as shown by classic authors´ references such as Juvenal (SAT., V, 26-30) and Fronto (Epistulae, I, 4, 8-13) and the amphorae findings in Rome. For this reason, a research program has been started which intends to improve the knowledge of this production and its distribution, the ARCEA project, “Production centres and trade relations in the Early Empire. Analysis of the amphorae production of the Tarraconensis central coast”, funded by the University of Alicante. The main action lines that are being developed within this project are:
-Field surveys and excavation of the production centre of La Rana (Gata de Gorgos, Alicante).
-Typological revision, archaeometric characterisation and epigraphical analysis of the central Tarraconensis amphorae.
-Analysis of the cargo of the main evidence of its commercialization "in transito", the Mariposa E shipwreck.
Archaic and Classical Greek Harbours between the Aegean Sea and the Eastern part of the Ionic Sea: a digitised database
Chiara Maria Mauro (University College Dublin)
This poster presents a project aimed at the study of Greek ports, their evolution and their
infrastructures between the archaic and the classical period, a pivotal moment of transition from natural harbours (where protection from wind and current was offered by the natural features of the coast) to artificial intervention on monumental scale. In particular, the focus will centre on the Aegean and Eastern Ionic Sea areas.
The project itself consist of an exhaustive assemblage of data about archaic and classical Greek harbours for the given periods managed into a digitised database, which will form a comprehensive up-to- date catalogue. This catalogue will be realised thanks to a MySql database over a WampServer and it will collect the names and the main characteristics of harbours spread all over Greek and Asian coastscape. Each data sheet will be records ancient and modern toponyms, location, presence of any kind of artificial structures, literary sources and bibliography. In this way, everyone who shows interest in Greek harbours can find different information and consult the database depending on different features.
This same catalogue will be used as a documentary basis for examining the evidence for Archaic and Classical harbours. In particular, collected data will serve to determine the most attractive natural places chosen for the location of ancient harbours, the most important kind of, the different harbour models in Greek world.
Economies of War and Ritual: The Gallic Carnyx
Marsha McCoy (University Dallas)
The Gallic or Celtic carnyx, a war trumpet played to unite the Gallic troops, intimidate the enemy with its loud, blaring sound, and frighten opponents with its large boar or serpent head visage, is reported in the Gallic attack on Delphi in 279 BCE, Caesar’s campaigns in Gaul in the 50s BCE, and Claudius’ invasion of Britain in 43 CE. It is one of the most distinctive identifying elements of the Gallic warrior, and is almost always depicted on Roman coins showing Gallic defeats (Crawford, RRC 282/1-5; 448/2a-3). It also appears on reliefs on Trajan’s Column, and on the silver Gundestrup cauldron found in northern Denmark and dating to 150 BCE-50 CE. In 2004 seven carnyces, one almost complete, were excavated in a Gallic military and religious deposit dating to the time of Caesar’s conquest in Tintignac, France, near Limoges. Evidence from the excavations suggests that the carnyces served a ritual as well as a military function. This paper analyzes the extraordinarily prominent place given to the carnyx in representations of Gauls by the Romans, and in Gallic art and burial deposits. Using the theories of cultural anthropologist Dan Sperber in his seminal work, Rethinking Symbolism (Cambridge 1975), it suggests that the carnyx functioned as a cultural symbol for the Gauls, containing a variety of meanings, in this case destructive as well as apotropaic and protective; meanings contradictory, and, consequently, inherently ambiguous, as many symbols are.
The tin mine of Vale do Mouro (Coriscada, Portugal): a preliminary study
Emmanuelle Meunier (University of Toulouse), Elin Figueiredo (Centro de Investigação em Materiais), Tony Silvino (Eveha) and António Sá Coixão (ACDR Freixo-de-Numão)
This poster presents the first results about tin mining vestiges detected on the archaeological site of Vale do Mouro, in Coriscada (N Portugal). This site is a roman villa (IInd-IVth c. AD) where a production of wine and olive oil has been identified. The mining remains are located nearby the villa and are composed by numerous opencast trenches, nowadays partially backfilled. One of the buildings in the villa revealed a significant fill of its base floor with quartz pieces, which were most likely waste heaps of the ore processing phase. Analyses showed the presence of cassiterite inclusions within the quartz. Less than 50 m away from this building is the nearest opencast trench, which was excavated in its upper part for this first study. The excavation showed that the trench was following a vein, and it was possible to identify tool marks on the granitic walls. The shape of the works and the techniques used for sinking are consistent with a roman exploitation. Likely, the other nearby backfilled mines could also be of this period.
The sources of antique tin are known in broad lines (European Occident) but precise elements about the mines which were actually exploited during Roman period are very scarce. The site of Vale do Mouro gives us an opportunity to bring data about tin procurement and about the way this production was integrated within the villa’s economy.
Change of the function of the city insula during the Late Roman period: the case of Late Roman insula from Maloutena district in Nea Paphos (Cyprus)
Julia Mikocka (University of Warsaw)
During this presentation the function of the Late Roman insula from Nea Paphos will be indicated.
Surveys showed that the oldest structures in this part of town are dated to late Classical period. In Hellenistic and Roman period probably residential buildings were erected. During the 4th century the House of Aion was build. This building is called house, but its architectural plan, decoration and specific elements indicate that it could have served public functions. This insula, for some reason, was distinguished from others. At this territory unusual features, not seen before in other buildings from the area of Nea Paphos, were indicated. This issue is interesting in the context of the location House of Aion in a representative part of the city and in the immediate vicinity of the Villa of Theseus, interpreted as the residence of an official. Of particular importance is the fact that at the time when the House of Aion still functioned, the quarter in which the late Roman insula was located had already been abandoned.
In order to obtain a complete picture of the functions which this insula performed in the city of Nea Paphos the comparative analysis will be presented. Results of the research will be presented in a wider context of the cities of the Mediterranean World. This research will bring new data on the history of Nea Paphos during late Roman period and shed light on the social, administrative and economical changes that took place in Nea Paphos during this period.
Databases and research procedures in the archaeological studies: scientific standards versus reality - case study of Nea Paphos
Lukasz Miszk (University Kraków)
At the CAA International conference, which was held in Atlanta this year, bold, but controversial postulate of necessity of the introduction of scientific rules to archaeological studies has been proposed. Such a regime based on standards prevailing in the exact science would require the use of statistical methods and publication of raw data. Despite of rightfulness of presented postulate, fulfilment of the scientific requirements constitutes a big challenge for archeologists. There are two main issues, lack of standardization in terms of data acquisition and the problem of their management. In this work we would like to present diagnosis of this problem on the example of research conducted by six independent expeditions in Kato Paphos Archaeological Park. Currently, teams conduct excavations without any established principles of cooperation. The scale of the problem will be illustrated on the basis of experience gained during the realization of research project concerning analysis of oil lamps collected at the excavations carried out by different research teams. The essential obstacles in the process of comparison of the material from different areas occurred due to the various methods of exploration, documentation and analysis. As a result, comparison of studied material using quantitative methods is impossible. In our presentation we would like to present a research program which might constitute the basis for the creation of comparable archaeological procedures.
Holistic archaeology and “Braudel’s perspectives” – the economy of Nea Paphos (Cyprus) in an interdisciplinary approach.
Lukasz Miszk (University Kraków)
Contemporary archaeology has become a platform for cooperation in many fields of humanities and science, aiming to facilitate the construction of mankind’s past narratives. Research focused on ancient cities, where individual sites, i.e. dwellings, public places, workshops, etc. operated within the broader context of the urban landscape, is an ideal matter for holistic studies. The city can therefore be treated as a "closed archaeological landscape", which, in order to be understood, should be examined both as a single site and from the "survey" perspective.
In this paper research by the Paphos Agora Project, focusing on the reconstruction of Paphos city’s economy, based on the Braudel's vision of history, i.e. three perspectives: long, medium and "histoire éventuellement", will be presented. This approach has been implemented in archaeological research in recent years. For this purpose, the conditions for cooperation of specialists from many fields of humanities, science and technology, i.e. geomorphologists, chemists, geophysics, photogrammetry specialists, conservators, archaeometrists, archaeologists (including ceramologists), architects, historians, numismatists and others, have been ensured. We would like to show within the context of our research results thus far that cooperation is currently the only possible approach that can provide the appropriate source base for trying to reconstruct the economic life of an ancient city holistically.
Shop, service area, administrative area, maybe all of these? Contextualisation and interpretation of archaeological objects within the perspective of the Eastern Portico at the Agora in Nea Paphos (Cyprus).
Lukasz Miszk (University Kraków)
One of the pillars of correct interpretation of archaeological material is its appropriate contextualisation, i.e. the understanding of the original environment in which it existed and functioned. This issue has become particularly important in recent years for further developing research on ancient economies. The problem of contextualisation of the findings has led to a change of thinking concerning the possibilities of their interpretation. This question has been reflected in the studies on agorai, where the hitherto simple interpretation of all acquired materials as a manifestation of commercial activity was considered incomplete or even misleading. The paper will show the casus of the Eastern Portico of the Agora in Paphos excavated by the Jagiellonian University in Cracow research teams. The destruction layers of an earthquake probably dating to AD 126 have provided various sets of artifacts buried simultaneously, located in many of the Portico’s rooms. However, their consistent interpretation as remains, for example of the Agoranomos office (based on inscription) or "The Office of a Paphos Surgeon" (based inter alia on a set of medical instruments) raises many problems. The purpose of this talk will be to discuss such unequivocal interpretations, endeavouring to answer the question of to what extent archaeology today is able to provide comparable and precise qualitative and quantitative data for the reconstruction of ancient economies.
Blies Survey Project
Marco Moderato (University Chieti-Pescara)
Blies Survey Project is a transborder, International research project that aims at reconstructing the historical landscapes of the Blies Valley, thanks to the joint cooperation between the Département de la Moselle - Parc Archéologique Européen de Bliesbruck-Reinheim (PAEBR), Kreis-Saarpfalz - Europaische Kulturpark Bliesbruck-Reinheim (EKBR) and the University G. D’Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara (UdA). Since 1980, the research activities focused on the excavation of the vicus and the villa; the project will integrate this knowledge with a larger focus on the surrounding landscape, through diachronic and multidisciplinary analysis.
- To define the population patterns in the study area through all the main chronological phases and their transitions
- to reconstruct the transformations of the natural landscape in the longue durée
- to understand the dynamics of organization and exploitation of resources
- to identify settlement hierarchies and their changes
- to understand how road networks worked
The research area of 10 km radius, which, according to what we know so far, may match with the area under Bliesbruck roman minor settlement influence. The chronology of the project fares from the Bronze Age to the end of the Middle Ages, in order to keep in consideration short, medium and long term processes in the landscape. The study area will be investigated with the modern approach of global landscape archaeology, using a wide choice of methodologies and investigation practices.
Legacy data in the context of a roman town: new (and old) data from the Campus of Corfinium
Marco Moderato (University Chieti-Pescara)
More often than not, legacy data contain useful information about the site that we are working on: even if data were gathered with an old or different metodology they can still provide insights on urbanism, landscape, material culture aspects which are otherwise completely lost. The work of the archaeologist is then also to provide a useful framework in which this data can be elaborated and compared.
The case study of Corfinium (present Corfinio,AQ,Italy) can reveal how legacy data can be crucial to the understanding of the urban landscape of a roman city. The city, renowned in antiquity for being the capital of the italic rebellion during the bellum italicum, has been investigated variously since the end of the XIX century. In this framework we will compare data from three different excavations (end of 1800, 1990, 2014-2017) in its Campus and how the joint elaboration of them creates a solid narrative for this area.
La terra sigillata hispánica de origen bético: una aproximación a su simbología
Manuel Moreno Alcaide Manuel (University Granada), María Isabel Fernández-García
Conocemos en la Baetica siete complejos alfareros productores de terra sigillata hispánica. Uno ubicado en la antigua ciudad de Isturgi (Los Villares de Andújar), dos en Iliberri (Granada), uno en Antikaria (Antequera, Málaga), uno en Singilia Barba (término de Antequera, Málaga) y dos en los actuales núcleos de Teba y Alameda (provincia Málaga). Las peculiaridades de sus sintaxis compositivas así como las técnicas decorativas aplicadas a las sigillatae lisas permiten una clara distinción entre ellos. Igualmente dentro de cada complejo alfarero es posible determinar las diferentes officinae, conocidas o anónimas, que elaboraban productos ornamentados. Influjos alóctonos combinados con elementos autóctonos confieren cierta originalidad a estas manufacturas. De todos estos alfares, sin lugar a dudas, el barrio artesanal ubicado en la antigua ciudad de Isturgi sobresale del resto tanto por su volumen de producción como por su amplia comercialización. A través de las sintaxis compositivas de las diferentes manufacturas de origen bético, recuperadas en los centros productores y receptores, es posible discernir una simbología dirigida quizá hacia unas élites indígenas siempre deseosas de productos novedosos por cuanto implicaban de prestigio y representación.
The agricultural territory of La Solana de las Pilillas (6th-5th centuries BC)
Asunción Martínez Valle (Museo Municipal de Requena)
La Solana de las Pilillas is an Iberian tower-farm that started the production of wine in the early 6th century BC. The site is located at 65 km from the Mediterranean coast in the ravines of Los Morenos (Requena), next to the Cabriel river. This is an area of limestone soils with a microclimate that is optimal for the cultivation of the vine, very sunny and with plenty of water from the ravines.
The winery is formed by four wine presses located next to the spaces required for the production of wine. Pressing systems, which give the site a commercial dimension, are appreciated in all the presses. Las Pilillas site shows the remains of an agricultural territory, with vineyard and several villages that controlled the surrounding territory.
From the 5th century BC, the production of wine increased. It was a production associated to scattered farming settlements, located next to numerous isolated wineries. The growing production resulted in greater control of the territory with the creation of new settlements on the hills, next to the main communication and trading routes.
Las Pilillas winery is associated to two pottery kiln workshops, where amphorae and tableware for consumption were produced.
Both, pottery and wine production show a significant Phoenician influence in the Know-How transmission.
Rock-Cut Units and Wine Production in Sicily: Preliminary Data from the Multidisciplinary Project
Gloria Olcese , Andrea Razza, Domenico Michele Surace (University Rome "La Sapienza")
The project “Fare il vino nell’Italia antica: i palmenti rupestri” intends to carry out original research on the economy of Italy in the Tyrrhenian area, with a specific focus on rock-cut units for wine-making (“palmenti”). The project, adopting a multidisciplinary approach, aims to reconstruct the history of the production of wine in Italy. Sicily is one of the principal sample areas. In particular, the Valley of Alcantara is rich in palmenti. The structures, thanks to their morphology and archaeological context, can be dated to at least the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. Other important areas are the territory of Ragusa (ancient Ibla) where numerous palmenti are attested, and the province of Agrigento, where another important structure is located at Sambuca di Sicilia. The comparison of the basins’ different morphologies could be particularly innovative and significant for dating: indeed, until now, the only elements used are the ceramics and inscriptions found near the palmenti, if they are contemporary to the construction of the palmento. The study carried out in Sicily has identified three principal types for the period between the Late Classical and the Byzantine period: 1) square pressing and fermentation basins, with the latter being smaller 2) quadrangular pressing and circular fermentation basins 3) complexes of basins with varied morphology (rarer). The residues analysis conducted on some sample vats has confirmed the use of these palmenti for producing wine.
A Protocorinthian vessel with an early myth scene from Tegea
Erik Østby (University of Bergen)
During the recent reorganization of the museum at Tegea in Arcadia, it was discovered that a sherd from a Middle Protocorinthian aryballos with a complicated figure scene, found during the Norwegian excavations of the 1990’s in the sanctuary of Athena Alea, joined with the lower part of the same vessel found during the French excavations in the early 20th century. In this way, the scene is now almost complete. The main group consists of six human figures with two warriors attacking and killing a horse-shaped monster, in the presence of two women, one of them perhaps Athena, and a crouching dwarf playing a flute between them. The scene is clearly narrative and almost certainly mythical if Athena is present, but the myth represented defies easy identification, and there is no known parallel to the scene in archaic art. A secondary group with the legs of two men facing one another across a crater, probably for a match of wrestling or boxing, is an early example of a well-known iconography.
The vessel was made in the first quarter of the 7th century BC, by an accomplished artist in the circle of the so-called Huntsmen Painter. At a surprisingly early moment he has managed to create a complicated, many-figured composition with subtly differentiated relations between the various participants, completely different from the narrative style of his famous contemporary, the Aiax Painter.
Quarry marks and carving lines on marble elements in monuments of Roman Athens
Adalberto Ottati (Pablo de Olavide University)
In several monuments of Roman Athens, carving lines and quarry marks associated to realization and positioning process of marble elements in architecture, are visible on many artifacts. Remarkable, for example, are carving lines and quarry marks within the Hadrian Library, preserved in a series of marble artefacts that, in addition to their pure architectural meaning, retain, therefore, traces linked to their realization and subsequent use. Some are still in situ, others re-employed in the later stages of the Hadrian building, when the complex becomes a Byzantine basilica.
All cases that will be presented return an image of some aspects of the working activity in ancient workshops: the know-how transfer for realization of marble architectural elements. Traces of the production process, in large or small-size, show the way used by manpower to visualize what had to be realized.
Der Einfluss politischer und wirtschaftlicher Verhältnisse auf das religiöse Leben: das lykische Beispiel
Bilsen Şerife Özdemir (Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University)
Mit seiner sowohl das Land, als auch das Meer beherrschenden Lage stellt das den Südwesten Anatoliens umfassende Lykien seit der Antike einen wichtigen Lebensraum dar. Das Gebiet besaß dadurch für alle Mächte, die vom Osten und Westen des Mittelmeers kamen seit Jahrhunderten im Zusammenhang politischer und wirtschaftlicher Verhältnisse enorme Wichtigkeit. Das politische Leben Lykiens hinterließ tiefe Spuren im kulturellen, sozialen und natürlich auch religiösen Aufbau des Landes.Besonders die Informationen, welche wir aus der Antike erhalten, geben Aufschluss darüber, dass die Lykier eine Gemeinschaft von Göttern mit lykischen Namen anbeteten, diese sich aber mit der Zeit durch politische Einflüsse änderten. In dieser Zeit werden Trqqas / Zeus, Malija/ Athena und Eni Mahanahi Leto erwähnt. Diese Änderung bereitete die Grundlage für die hellenistische Epoche. Den gegenwärtig eine griechische Form angenommenen Göttern wurden in der hellenistischen Epoche fremde Götter und Königskulte hinzugefügt. Als die römische Epoche angebrochen war, wurden die allegorische Göttin Roma und die unmittelbar als das religiöse Symbol des Imperators zählenden Kaiserkulte gehören zu den wichtigen lykischen Riten römischer Epoche. Warum aber zeigt der religiöse Aufbau Lykiens solch eine schnelle Änderung und Umstellung? Diese Situation weist offenbar auf eine politische Notwendigkeit und ein Resultat wirtschaftlicher Einheit hin. Dieser Artikel versucht diese Gründe zu erklären.
The Elements of Social Status Demonstration in Hellenistic and Roman Period Theatres: In the Light of Archaeological, Architectural and Epigraphic Evidence
Banu Özdilek (Mustafa Kemal University)
In the antiquity, theatre culture has been shaped around a certain religious view in the form of open-air displays in accordance with the belief, cultural and political structure of the time. With the Archaic Period, because of the growing interest in this ceramony, the timber structures of the theatre architecture gradually transformed into stone structures starting from cavea in line with needs. Acceleration in theater architecture also continued in the Classical Period. In the Hellenistic period the cavea and stage building has taken its final shape of the traditional Greek Theatre Architecture form. When it came to the Roman period, the most important step of globalisation as a dispersal policy of the empire was zoning. Theatre structures were built by Roman engineers in the provinces outside Rome, as the number one propaganda tool for reflecting the empire's power. The context of theatral games reflected the politics and the philosophy of the period, and it is seen that the theatre architecture was also shaped in this direction.
The origins of the village of Cardona (Barcelona) in relation to the salt exploitation: the republican settlement
Ainhoa Pancorbo (City Council of Cardona) and Albert Martín Menéndez (City Council of Cabrera de Mar)
In 2015 and 2016 and due to the construction works in the football field of Cardona the remains of a roman site were uncovered. The archaeological fieldwork held during almost a year allowed us to find and study those remains in a surface of almost 1000 square meters, but the settlement extension is much bigger. Although we're still working in the laboratory stage we can advance that the remains are a part of a republican settlement with marked italic characteristics. It was built at the foot of the hill were the castle of Cardona presides de landscape and under which is supposed to be and Iberian oppidum. We're also only some metres west from the Salt Valley, the first exploitation of gem salt in Europe, worked since the mid Neolithic. We know the salt mountain of Cardona was well known at that period thanks to written sources. Now, the findings in some of the republican rooms, abandoned during the third quarter of the Ist century bC, let us know that we're in control point to supervise the extraction and trade of that appreciated mineral, the salt.
Productive, commercial structures and territory around Roman Albintimilium. An overview
Alessio Paonessa (University of Cologne)
My poster aims at giving an overview to the most important buildings connected to commerce and production of the Roman city of Albintimilium.
The city now called Ventimiglia is located in Italy on the western coast of Liguria. Since the antiquity it has been known to be an important gateway from Mediterranean to Alps, but it is in the Roman times that the city grows up as never seen before.
The archaeological researches carried out since the end of the 19th century show up a city strongly linked to the Roman commercial network, with import of goods from overall the Mediterranean. Strabo remembers us that the city was «good-sized», moreover the settlement was reached by the road Iulia Augusta and it is indicated on the Tabula Peuntingeriana as plagia. The hypothesis of an ancient harbour before the Medieval one is currently under debate.
Despite the absence of productive structures inside the city walls area, many of them have been uncovered in the surroundings. The villa in the district called Latte was situated next to city centre and three more were discovered in the location of Villa Matutiana. There was inside the territory of Albintimilium also the Portus Herculis Monoeci and probably the recently brought to light villa of Costa Balenae.
All this makes Albintimilium a very interesting case of study of ancient economy.
The diet of the classical athletes and the opinions of ancient writers, philosophers and doctors concerning it
Kleanthi Pateraki (University of the Aegean)
The aim of the poster presentation is to scientifically highlight an issue that has so far almost been undetected or little researched: the nutrition of the athletes during the classical era, era of great prosperity for the four Great Panhellenic Sports and Music (performing arts) Games (that is the Olympic Games, held in the Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia, the Pythian Games, held in the Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, the Isthmian Games, held in the Sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia and the Nemean Games, held in the Sanctuary of Zeus at Nemea).
Information about the athletes’ nutrition (e.g. from ancient sources) from the early times of sports to the Greco-Roman period will be presented. Particular importance will be given to the evidence from the classical era, which marked a new phase in the dietary habits of athletes (the consumption of animal proteins was introduced, especially before the race).
Subsequently the views (positive and negative) of ancient philosophers (e.g. Plato, Aristotle), writers (i.e. Euripides) and even doctors (Hippocrates, Galen) on the diet and generally on the lifestyle of ancient athletes will be examined.
Finally, the relationship of diet, that is the result of a natural need for human survival, to athleticism, a crucial socio-political institution of ancient Greece will be presented.
Production spaces and commercial spaces in hispanoroman city of Italica (Seville, Spain): economic topography of the city
Yolanda Peña Cervantes (National University of Distance Education Madrid)
Within the project "Public space, private space and service space in Hadrian´s Villa (Tivoli, Rome) and Italica (Santiponce, Seville). The formation of Hadrian models and their diffusion ", subsidized by the State Program for the promotion of excellence scientific and technical research of the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness of Spain, we are studying those spaces that are suitable to be linked to the economic activity in the city of Italica.
In this way, we have isolated, from the analysis of the exhumed structures and based on the revision of the excavation memories and the existing bibliography, a good number of workshops and commercial spaces. This fact allow us to propose an approach to the handicraft and commercial topography of the city of Italica in our poster. Thus along with the re-reading of its well-known bakeries, we put forward several hypotheses about the use of its abundant tabernae. In this sense we will focus especially on the industrial and commercial spaces located in the so-called "Cañada Honda", domus that is being re-excavated in the works related to the aforementioned project.
Analyzing Age at Death from Roman Epitaph Inscriptions
Thousands of inscriptions of age at death from Roman epitaphs are statistically analyzed. The Gompertz distribution is used to estimate survivor functions. The smoothed distributions are classified according to the estimation results. Similarities and differences can be detected more easily. Cluster analysis provides three typical distributions. The analysis of the force of mortality function of the three clusters shows that the epigraphic sample is not representative of the mortality in the Roman Empire. The results in Noerth Africa are compared with data from epitaphs from the European provinces. Africa is quite different. The general mortality level is much lower. The African cluster is much more homogeneous than the European cluster. The mortality distributions are determined by three factors: mortality levels, commemorative processes, and population growth rates.
"High Standards"? – Transportamphoren zwischen Ökonomie und Identität
Julia Pygoch (University Bochum)
Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, Standardisierungsprozesse für Transportamphoren im 5. Jh. v. Chr. anhand einer statistischen Auswertung greifbar zu machen.
Diese im gesamten Ägäisraum und darüber hinaus verbreitete Materialgruppe ist durch ihre bloße Masse ein Sonderfall innerhalb der Klassischen Archäologie. Als Hypothese wäre daher eine mit aufgrund der voranschreitenden Vernetzung intensivierte Standardisierung anzunehmen.
Ein übergreifender Konsens bezüglich der Größe und Volumina würde sowohl ökonomische als auch logistische Prozesse simplifizieren. Dennoch sind für den gesamten Zeitraum der Antike nur wenige Evidenzen für eine solche Entwicklung ersichtlich, eine heterogene Ausgestaltung von Amphoren bleibt die Regel. Dies legt die Vermutung nahe, dass es, neben dieser ökonomischen Ebene, noch andere Faktoren gegeben hat, die die Gestaltung der Amphoren beeinflusst haben.
Nach Mark Lawall würde eine voranschreitende Vereinheitlichung von Transportamphoren, da sie ein Anzeiger der antiken, ökonomischen Entwicklung waren, ebenfalls auf eine bestimmte Art von ‚Gleichsetzung’ verschiedener wirtschaftlicher Strukturen innerhalb dieses Zeitraums bedeuten. Über eine quantitative Analyse soll anhand eines Schiffskargos bei Tektaş Burnu der Grad der Normierung für einen bestimmten Amphorentyp ermittelt sowie anhand dessen Rückschluss auf ihren Herstellungskontext und ökonomische Bedeutung gezogen werden.
Cultura musiva della Sardegna meridionale in età imperiale e tardoantica: ispirazioni e botteghe
Luigi Quattrocchi (University Madrid Carlos III)
La Sardegna meridionale è la zona dell’Isola che, numericamente parlando, ha dato il maggior numero di pavimenti musivi. Concentrati principalmente in tre aree (Nora, Cagliari e Sant’Antioco), questi pavimenti, forniscono dati interessanti circa le botteghe d’esecuzione.
Da un'iniziale ispirazione centro italica si assite all'arrivo di cartoni musivi provenienti principalmente dal Nord Africa. Durante il III secolo si ha un incremento esponenziale della messa in posa di tessellati, forse dovuto al rinnovvamento edilizio di età severiana; gli artigiani locali non sempre riescono a reinterpretare il cartone arrivato, che sia di provenienza algerina o tunisina, e dunque copiano in maniera pedissequa i copybook.
Negli ultimi decenni si è cercato di capire quale fosse l'ispirazione di questi mosaici, ma ben poco si sa sulle botteghe locali. Grazie a nuovi studi, oggi, possiamo cercare di individuare alcune delle botteghe musive locali operanti nel sud Sardegna, analizzando anche alcune direttrici commerciali con il Nord Africa molto interessanti.
I mosaici che si prendono in considerazione si trovano, oltre che nelle città sopra indicate, anche a Capoterra, Villaspeciosa, Sinnai, Settimo San Pietro e Antas.
The ancient beekeeping in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula during the Iron Age (4th to 2nd centuries BC)
David Quixal Santos (University Valencia)
In this poster we focus on the study of the ancient beekeeping during the Iron Age in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula, the area of the Iberian Culture (Classical and Late periods). The purpose is to present all the new discoveries from the last years, especially all the materials from the excavation of Fonteta Ràquia (Riba-Roja, Valencia). In this rural settlement we have documented thousands of fragments of at least 200 ceramic beehives, which far exceeds the previous records of this type of objects, placing it as one of the reference sites along the Mediterranean in terms of abundance and specialization. Nevertheless, the study of the materials from this site and from others in the ancient Iberian Edetania has provided a lot of information about the phases of the honey production, storage and commerce .
Nuovi dati sul c.d. “Edificio degli Augustales“ di Centuripe (Sicilia)
Salvatore Rizza (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche)
Il c.d. “Edificio degli Augustales“ di Centuripe fu messo in luce nel 1951 in una zona già profondamente sconvolta da costruzioni moderne e da precedenti scavi clandestini, dai quali proviene buona parte delle epigrafi e delle sculture rapportate alle strutture di età imperiale. A causa della natura degli scavi e dell’acquisizione dei reperti, datazione, rapporto reciproco e destinazione d’uso dei singoli ambienti sono sempre stati piuttosto controversi. La stessa denominazione “Edificio degli Augustales“ è legata al rinvenimento di una lapide composta da due frammenti (uno di provenienza clandestina) con dedica al Genio di Augusto da parte di un sacerdote augustale. Nonostante non ci fossero elementi comprovanti che la dedica si trovasse originariamente all’interno del complesso, si suppose che uno degli ambienti messi in luce potesse essere la sede del collegio degli Augustales e che nei pressi, come in altre città romane, potesse sorgere il foro. Si è, in seguito, ipotizzato che il complesso stesso potesse essere parte del foro. Da allora, in bibliografia, l’ultima ipotesi, non provata, è diventata certezza.
Ora, l’esame della documentazione di scavo degli anni Cinquanta, emersa recentemente in occasione della redazione di una carta archeologica di Centuripe, assieme ad una revisione critica dei dati pubblicati permettono una valutazione più oggettiva del complesso.
La reutilización de elementos ornamentales y epigráficos de ámbitos públicos altoimperiales en la Necrópolis Paleocristiana de Tarragona
Julio César Ruiz Rodríguez (Institut Català d'Arqueologia Clàssica)
El complejo funerario junto al río Francolí, en Tarragona (España) constituye una de las necrópolis paleocristianas más destacadas del Mediterráneo occidental. Datada por los indicios más antiguos a finales del siglo III d.C. pero con una época de esplendor situada en las siguientes centurias, se halla al suroeste del perímetro ocupado por la Tarraco romana. En ella fueron encontradas numerosas sepulturas individuales, pero también destacados enterramientos colectivos y complejos basilicales. Para la construcción de todos estos monumentos funerarios fue utilizada una gran cantidad de materiales, destacando el reaprovechamiento de elementos que previamente habían formado parte de programas ornamentales en espacios de representación. Incluso estatuas e inscripciones imperiales en marmora de importación, testigos del antiguo esplendor de la ciudad y sus élites locales, fueron transportados para su reutilización como meros elementos constructivos.
Nuestra atención se centra en todos aquellos elementos propios de programas ornamentales procedentes originalmente de espacios públicos altoimperiales, habiendo establecido criterios que permitan identificar su carácter oficial. El objetivo es compilar un primer catálogo de piezas, llegando a alcanzar pautas que expliquen las finalidades de su reutilización, y que nos sirvan para conocer con mayor precisión la procedencia primaria de determinadas piezas, cuyo contexto original nos es absolutamente desconocido en la actualidad.
Los retratos imperiales de Tarraco (Hispania citerior): técnicas, talleres y modos de producción
Julio César Ruiz Rodríguez (Institut Català d'Arqueologia Clàssica)
En Tarraco se conserva un total de once cabezas-retrato que representan a emperadores y miembros de su familia, suponiendo prácticamente el 15% de los retratos imperiales conocidos en Hispania. En esta sede, se propone actualizar la información sobre los talleres de origen de estas efigies y sus técnicas de elaboración, a partir de las huellas de diferentes procesos de trabajo todavía visibles en las esculturas. Las cuestiones planteadas se relacionan más bien con su producción: así, se reflexionará especialmente sobre aspectos determinantes como la manera de trabajarlas, los distintos modos de anclaje para varias piezas constatados en algunas de ellas, el instrumental utilizado por el escultor y, eventualmente, la forma original de los bloques de mármol sobre los que fueron labradas.
En particular, el foco será puesto en el asunto de la producción de retratos imperiales en la ciudad y su recepción desde talleres foráneos para “consumo local”. Más interesantes son, si cabe, los indicios que sugieren la posibilidad de que, desde comienzos de la época imperial, los talleres de Tarraco produjeran efigies imperiales para su exportación a otras ciudades hispanorromanas. Esta circunstancia pudiera ser un testimonio del verosímil papel de Tarraco como centro de producción y exportación, especializado en este tipo de productos y siguiendo las directrices marcadas por las principales autoridades de Roma, en consonancia con su recientemente asumido rol como capital provincial.
Standardization and modularity in the Egyptian funerary industry of the first millennium BC
Vera Artemisia Rondano (University of California, Los Angeles)
My research seeks to define patterns of economic growth and social mobility during a time of political fragmentation in the first half of the 1st millennium BC in Egypt, by means of an analysis of the production system of funerary commodities. Despite the ample evidence for reuse of New Kingdom (ca. 1550-1069 BC) coffins during the Third Intermediate Period (ca. 1069-715 BC), there is little doubt that coffins of the Late Period (ca. 715-332 BC) exhibited a design that made it difficult to reuse earlier coffins. Moreover, new types of coffins appeared together with other innovations that included "basalt" sarcophagi, Ptah-Sokar-Osiris statues and mummy nets. Given the technical difficulties presented by new designs, it seems safe to assume that the demand for brand new funerary objects increased considerably during the Late Period, and that Egyptian artisans needed to make the production system more efficient in order to keep up with the demand. The standardization of at least part of the production process would have resulted into more efficient ways of producing and assembling funerary objects, while still allowing for regional variability in the decorative program. My poster will focus on methodology, and explore some of the ways in which statistical analysis and visualizations performed with the software R can facilitate the investigation of the dynamics of standardization and modularity of Egyptian funerary assemblages.
Nothing Happens in a Vacuum: Institutional Supports for Archaic Maritime Trade (6th c. BCE)
Paul Salay (University of Southern California)
A major revelation of the New Institutional Economics is that persistent and frequent long-distance trade cannot take place in the absence of essential supporting institutions (clearly defined property rights, enforceable contracts, etc.). When trading partners are separated by distance, the benefits of shirking produce levels of risk that are prohibitive except under limited conditions (North 1981, 1990, 2000). Meanwhile, in the western Mediterranean of the 6th c. BCE the archaeological evidence from both contemporary shipwrecks and analysis of pottery assemblages provides unambiguous testimony of significant increases in the scale, volume, and complexity of long-distance trade. Thus, we should be able to presume the existence of such institutions even if uncertain what they were or what specific forms they took.
I believe that certain lead letters of the period offer genuine insights into these questions. They are testimony for various institutional arrangements including contracts, the use of intermediaries and witnesses, ownership and transferability of shares, deferred payment schedules, and enforcement arrangements. In other words, they show institutions that lower barriers to entry, ensure compliance, and reduce risk and uncertainty, all fundamental to sustained long-distance trade. Finally, they demonstrate the heuristic potential of combining literary and archaeological analysis to provide insight into ancient economic practices that might be otherwise impossible.
Die tabernae von Pergamon – Eine Studie zu Form und Semantik von Wirtschaftsräumen im Stadtgebiet einer hellenistischen Metropole
Julian Gabriel Schneider
Die Metropole Pergamon bietet durch ihre langjährige Forschungstradition und die grossflächige Freilegung des Stadtgebiets ideale Voraussetzungen für zahlreiche Forschungsschwerpunkte. Einblicke in die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung der bedeutenden hellenistischen Polis bieten sich aufgrund der mangelnden schriftlichen Quellenlage jedoch nur selten und punktuell. Umso mehr ergibt sich für die Archäologie die Möglichkeit, in dieser Lücke einen Beitrag für das Verständnis von Wirtschaftsprozessen der antiken Stadt zu leisten. Anhand der tabernae, die im Allgemeinen als Beleg für wirtschaftliche Aktivitäten unterschiedlicher Art gelten, lässt sich die Entwicklung von wirtschaftlichen Funktionszonen innerhalb des eumenischen Stadtgebiets nicht nur besser verstehen, sondern auch im Spiegel der Urbanistik in den grösseren historischen Kontext einordnen. Dadurch lässt sich der Zusammenhang zwischen der ökonomischen und urbanistischen Entwicklung Pergamons verdeutlichen.
Das Poster soll die Entwicklung von Wirtschaftsräumen im hellenistischen Stadtgebiet anhand der tabernae bis zum Ende des 1. Jh. v. Chr. visualisieren und knüpft an aktuelle Forschungsprojekte an. Dabei werden auch die übergeordneten und zusammenhängenden Baukomplexe in die Diskussion miteinbezogen, um aufgrund dessen die Stadtentwicklung besser verstehen zu können. Des Weiteren soll dargelegt werden, wie tabernae als Forschungsgegenstand für die Untersuchung wirtschaftlicher Funktionsbereiche herangezogen werden können.
Ceramics and exchange in the lower Meander Valley from Roman to Early Byzantine times – the view from Miletus (Turkey)
Nico Schwerdt (Max-Planck-Institut für ethnologische Forschung)
In my paper I will discuss economic ties between Miletus and its micro- and macro-region by means of the distribution of regional ceramic wares. Distribution patterns will be compared to textual evidence and other sources for production, trade, and exchange in the lower Meander valley.
Pottery deposits do not constitute direct proxy evidence of economic integration in antiquity, but rather form an indirect source, which must be critically evaluated in a broader context. Because of the high density of well investigated sites, e.g. Miletus, Didyma, Priene, Samos, Ephesos, Magnesia, and the proximity to large scale pottery production centres such as Phokaia, Tralleis, Pergamon, and Çandarlı the study area is particularly well suited for this purpose.
In recent years excavations in the city of Miletus revealed a dense sequence of stratified pottery assemblages dating from the 1st to the 7th cent. AD. The study of their ceramic shapes in combination with quantification and archaeometry (Matrix Group by Refiring, Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) provides new evidence for the connectivity of the city in the longue durée: During the 2nd and 3rd centuries supra-regional production centres dominate. For Late Antiquity I will raise the question if regional ceramics like so-called Meander Sigillata and red-slipped table ware, cooking ware, Late Roman Amphorae 3 and Aegean bag-shaped amphorae were produced locally or only in a few regional centres.
Evolution of the town-countryside relationship during Roman times: the case of Parma (Italy) as inferred by the excavations at via del Conservatorio
Ilaria Serchia, Michele Matteazzi (Catalan Institute of Classical Archaeology Tarragona)
The peculiar relation between the Roman colony of Parma and its ager has been well defined since the time of its establishment in 183 BC, likely suggested by the need of controlling the mouth of the Parma creek valley, where the watercourse was crossed by via Aemilia.
In the first phase, the separation between the urban area of the colony, surrounded by mighty bricked walls, and the area extra urbem was very clear. During the recent archaeological excavations at via del Conservatorio, part of the southern perimeter of the Republican wall near an urban gate was documented. It is certain that between 2nd and 1st cent. BC, a production district arose and developed in this area, taking advantage of the proximity to the ancient course of Parma creek and to a roadway directed to the countryside.
The high commercial value and the strong outward opening of this part of the town might have suggested, at the time of the augustan re-establishment of the colony, to rebuild the entire area by breaking down the urban walls and realizing at least two porticated domus facing the roadway.
This situation still persists during the Late Antiquity (4th-5th cent. AD) when the original commercial vocation of the area seems to be further reiterated by the presence of bone processing workshops and large warehouses. In the 6th century the building of new urban walls, probably due to the Theodoric enterprise, came to re-propose the ancient division between urban area and extra-urban area.
The Balearic Interface: Changing Trade Routes and Indigenous Persistence in the Late First Millennium B.C.E.
Alexander Smith (State University of New York)
The Balearic Islands in the Western Mediterranean were home to the Talayotic people, a particularly late iteration of Iron Age culture. The islands of Mallorca and Menorca witnessed the dramatic shifts of economic and political power that occurred in the Western Mediterranean in the second half of the first millennium B.C.E. The islands, however, were not passive observers, but interacted with these foreign powers while also retaining many elements of their Iron Age, indigenous practices.
This paper is a synthesis of the changing nature of trade routes around the islands of Mallorca and Menorca through the analysis of shipwreck data from roughly the fifth century B.C.E. to the first century C.E. During this time, it is clear that the nature of trade and exchange was shifting around the islands, yet many of the indigenous settlements retained their domestic and ritual practices while incorporating new, foreign material culture elements.
Although the islands are considered minor entities in the grand scheme of Mediterranean development by many modern and ancient scholars alike, this study will illustrate the potential these islands offer for a critical examination of the nature of Punic and Roman colonialism and trade. Simultaneously, this paper will challenge the conception of "cultural purity" in the Late Iron Age by illustrating the mutable nature of cultural identity with the incorporation of foreign goods into indigenous customs at major sites on the islands.
Construction of the Hercules' Sanctuary in Pola
Alka Starac (Archaeological Museum of Istria)
The Hercules'sanctuary in Pola consisted of a temple, sacred square yard with a well and surrounding portico. Sanctuary complex occupies 900 square meters in explored part, while complete surface could be estimated to nearly 1500 square meters. In place is remaining temple stereobate 8-9.5 x 16 meters. Terrace was fenced by foundation walls of portico and filled by soil, quarry stone and a large deposit of empty amphorae turned upside down. Deposit in foundations of the sanctuary and leaning thermae contained more than 2119 amphorae, mostly of the type Lamboglia 2, especially transitional forms toward Dressel 6 A. Construction of the terrace was finished in about 15 years. Ten percent of amphorae were stamped. Stamps and tituli picti indicate possible names of senatorial owners of praedia with amphorae workshops, well known in Istria. An old find of inscription concerning building or renovation of Hercules' sanctuary at Pola is reconsidered as a part of temple architecture. Inscription is fragmentary preserved and it was discussed in two possible ways: as confirmation of public business ruled by duumviri of Pola and as a private donation. Paper discuss legal and property state, possible building cost, number of specialized workers and optimal duration of construction project.
Archaic roof-tiles from Apollonia Pontica
Daniela Stoyanova (Sofia University)
The archaeological investigations on the island of St. Kirik, where the temenos of Apollonia Pontica (present-day Sozopol) was located, continue since 2009. The most important results include the uncovered remains of monumental structures (a temple, an altar, etc.) from the Late Archaic Period, when the entire excavated area was reorganized and monumentalized. The remains of roofs with tiles have been detected. The aim of the poster is to present the main types of pan and cover tiles, eaves tiles, and antefixes that were part of the roofs of the uncovered Archaic temple and other structures that have been completely dismantled already in ancient times. The available evidence allow for an almost complete reconstruction of the elements of the roofs that have exact parallels in Miletos and Didyma in term of types and decoration – a testimony to the active exchange in the period and the transportation of bulky goods between metropolis and colony. The presence of various types of pan and cover tiles and of architectural terracottas indicate the use of various standards, as well as different phases within the Late Archaic Period. The new evidence about Archaic ceramic building materials from Apollonia Pontica add considerably to our knowledge about their use and distribution in the Greek colonies on the western coast of the Black Sea.
Economic crisis of the 3rd century CE and its role in the rise of the Sassanid dynasty
The rise of the Sasanian dynasty (224- 650 CE) to the power, their aims, motives and reasons is in the shadow of history. Our existing knowledge about the Sasanian family before the foundation of the Sasanian empire by Ardashir I (224-239/40 CE), is based on confusing historical data, incomplete evidences and distorted sources. In fact, this part of the Sasanian history has many unclear points that require more great efforts to understand. With consideration of the economic factors and its important in political events of the last days of Arsacid dynasty, I shall seek to economic motivations of the Sasanian family’s revolt against their Parthian king of kings. In this survey I will discuss the role of the Sasanian family in the Arsacid agriculture, the basis of the Parthian economy, its role in the economy and as a result in the economic crisis of the 3rd century CE. That led to their rising to the power. Surveying on the economic role of the Sasanian as Arsacid landholders and the owner of water, land and human sources in the heterogeneous geography, dispersed and dry land of the Iranian plateau is done for the first time by this paper.
Iron trade middlemen and managers during the II century A.D.: case studies from Puteoli and Cumae
Marco Tartari, Marcello Gelone
Starting from the recurrence of the terms actor ferrariarum and negotiator ferrariarum contained in two Latin inscriptions, the one from Puteoli and the other from Cumae, this study will regard some investigations about the role of that sort of officers or managers, probably involved in the iron trade, during the Roman imperial age, particularly under Nerva-Antonine dynasty. The mentioned officers probably centred their business on moving iron ingots from the harbour city of Puteoli to different buyers in other areas.
This work intends to compare these officers to others connected with commerce, trying to figure out their functions, and if they belonged to the imperial family or they were private businessmen. At the same time a survey of well-known evidences of iron ingots will help to clarify the commercial routes throughout the Empire and maybe it will offer some additional elements, which may enable a more precise interpretation of these often uncertain figures.
Deciphering and interpreting economic and social transformation and challenges through the research of the Roman solar cults, deities and rituals
Ljuben Tevdovski (University Goce Delcev)
The study of roman history has pointed towards complex transformation of the presence and importance of the solar cults, deities and rituals in the Roman world. The gradual appearance of these religious tendencies, from the intimate worships of the marginal or culturally isolated to the presence in the villas of the wealthy, has intriguingly and rapidly transformed into powerful mystic cults that penetrated deeply into the socio-cultural milieu of the entire empire. Finally, in a striking conceptual shift these foreign and repressed cults, deities and rituals of the late-republican period, managed in just two centuries to assimilate into a syncretistic religious system that was not secretive and mystical as much as it tended to emanate divine universality of the Sun god and religious and political domination.
A scientific research, that combines well the limited literary sources, often loaded with preconceptions, with the more abundant and comprehensive archaeological evidence, has the capacity to transform the quest for this religious transformation into an integrated approach towards the social and economical history of the Empire.
Such approach is able to provide key answers to the questions of economic and demographic changes, social and economic stratifications, regional dynamics and knowledge exchange throughout the Empire, as well as deep understanding for the mindsets and policies created in reaction to the economic set-backs and political crises in Late antiquity.
Slavery and its impact on socio-cultural practices in the ancient Greek society
Agnes Ismene Thomas (Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main)
With slavery being a basic factor of ancient Greek economy, this paper focuses on social and cultural consequences of unfree labour, as well as of slavery as a phenomenon in everyday life both of citizens and slaves, during the classical and hellenistic times. Therefore, it would be interesting to examine the ways in which slaves and (the legitimation of) slavery were perceived in the ancient societies and what distinguished free from unfree people.
From an archaeological perspective, there is a scarcity in direct material evidence from a slave's daily life, with only faint exceptions, such as findings from the ancient silver mines of Laureion in Attica. Therefore, most material evidence on the topic described above is available through iconographical sources, i.e. reliefs on grave stones, vase painting or terracotta figurines. By understanding these images as media of social discourse, the iconographical characteristics of different groups of a society can help to define, among others, the various concepts of slavery for the period.
Thus, the paper will focus on questions regarding main characteristics of slave depictions and their implications in Greek iconography as they developed over time, as well as on the differences between the various political centres since the 5th century BC, taking into consideration the recipients of the under discussion objects and, in this way, opening up the possibility to discuss recent theories like neo-institutional economics and others.
Kantharoi of Vysochino type – chronology, manufacture and distribution of a specific type of 1st century AD North Pontic Silverware
Mikhail Treister (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Berlin)
The kantharoi with biconical body, with the upper part decorated with friezes of cyma and cyma reversa and the lower strigil-shaped part, with wish-bone handles ending with balls in their upper part and with leaves as lower attachments are attributed to the type Vysochino after the find of a set of 4 such vessels in the cache of the second half of the 1st century AD Sarmatian burial in a Barrow-mound 28 of the group Vysochino-VII in the Lower Don region. These kantharoi have a rather compact area of distribution, with the concentration in the Eastern Crimea and the Lower Don area, though their finds originate also from the Mountain Crimea and the Kuban area. Recent finds of such kantharoi in the destruction layer of the fortified site of Artezian in the Bosporan Kingdom with a Greek dotted donative inscription on the bottom of one of them allow to settle the terminus ante quem for their manufacture – 46/47 AD and to suggest the possibility of their production in the workshop of the Bosporan Kingdom. Therefore I cannot accept the viewpoint of S. Künzl that the goblets of Vysochino type were manufactured in one of the workshops in the provinces Bithynia, Cappadocia or Pontus. It is noteworthy that the kanhraroi discussed show more compact area of distribution than the related group of silver karchesia with a similar decoration of the body and execution of the handles, the finds of which originate from Western Ukraine, in Olbia, South-Western Crimea and the Kuban basin.
The Burnaz Harbor, Tax Exempt and the Economic Boom in the East Mediterranean
Füsun Tülek (Kocaeli University)
Archaeological researches illuminate economic boom, and increase in number of settlements in East Plain Cilicia as of the fourth century AD mainly based on production and trade of olive oil distributed via marine trade in the East Mediterranean. Prosperity of the de novo settlements in size of a village, and foundation of ex novo settlements and farmsteads to take part in rising economic activity have been documented in the Late Roman East Plain Cilicia. Olive Oil, produced by the villages under organization of church, temple, or landlords of farmsteads, was dispatched to the main trade hub, to the major harbor, run under jurisdiction of a major ancient city, to be exported via interregional marine trade. During such an economic boom ex novo foundation of a settlement situated on a volcano, the Deli Halil, at the northeastern tip of the Gulf of Issikos/Iskenderun, overlooking the Gulf and controlling the marine trade at the ancient harbor of Burnaz appears as a deliberate enterprise of the closest major ancient city of Epiphaneia. Present paper aims to examine foundation of the ancient settlement of Deli Halil in relation with the Late Antique economic boom of the region, the tax exempt granted to the region due to the natural catastrophes, and the rise of marine trade at small harbors, such as Burnaz.
Metal refining as a coinage revolution in the kingdom of Lydia
Uygar Ozan Usanmaz (Akdeniz University)
Lydians have an indisputable role in human history with the minting of first coins. Before inventing the coinage, people were swapping their property. On the other hand, electrum alloys became a payment way for a while, which their standards defined by authority in the seventh century BCE. Prior to issuing usual coins, these alloys, i.e. “proto-coins”, were standardized in terms of both their weights and incus traces in that period. However changing silver and gold rates in the content of electrum alloys lead to lost their values quickly. To overcome this obstacle, Croesus revoked all circulating electrum coins and decided to separate gold and silver compounds in the sixth century. In this way, he gave order to produce distinguish gold and silver coins to create fair trade in the Kingdom of Lydia. Refining process or the separation of gold and silver were made using the methods called “cementation” and “cupellation” by metallurgical experts. Just after the Lydians minted the first coins, coinage spread into the ancient Persian and Greek world entirely and it caused to shift economic and social life as well. This innovation which rose from Pactalus River in sixth century is so important to understand the archaeological impact of Lydians over the world trade.
Religion and ceramic: Late antiquity unguitaries from Tlos
Çilem Uygun (Mustafa Kemal University)
The connection of ceramics with religious beliefs has manifested itself in the anthropomorphic vessels of the Chalcolithic Age and continued with the emergence of new forms or emeralds after the Bronze Age and Iron Age. This material group, which is defined as containers with liturgical purpose in the literature, has been typologically enriched in Greek and Roman cultures parallel to the more complex and comprehensive character of the belief system. Examples of ampulla and unguentaria used to carry important objects in spiritual terms during visits to the goblets and cross centers used in baptisms are as examples of liturgical vessels. Among these vessels are unguentaria, which began to be used with the Hellenistic Period and which we can interpret as the continuation of pagan tradition, and ampullas known from Greek and Roman ceramics typology as oil-bearing vessels. Unlike the elegant spindle form in the 6th and 7th centuries AD, the bottle forms with a rather thick scruffy and sloppy workmanship were called ampullas in early publications and were identified as Late Antiquity unguentaria in the direction of the common understanding of recent researchers. In this study, the unguentaria samples recovered in Tlos, one of the ancient cities of the Lycian region, will be examined in terms of the typological diversity of the form, which dates back to the Hellenistic Period and gained liturgical function under the influence of monotheistic religion.
Late Classical lekythoi with polychrome decoration from Apollonia Pontica
Slava Vasileva (National Archaeological Institute with Museum Sofia)
This paper presents the results of research on a significant number of examples found during the large-scale excavations of the necropolis of Apollonia on the Western Black Sea coast. The decoration of the red-figure lekythoi with added colors allows for groupings based on the drawing and schemes applied for the figural composition on the front side and the palmette patterns on the back side of the vases. Parallels of the “Apollonian groups” from other parts of the Greek world are taken into consideration including their distribution and the information that they might give on the organization of the activities of their production.
Imperial properties in Roman Hispania: The Epigraphica evidence
Diego Romero Vera (University Bordeaux)
Roman emperors owned several and varied properties along the provinces of Iberian Peninsula, among them were: landed states, quarries, slaves and mainly mines. This vast richness was managed by a healthy team of financial procurators, imperial freedmen and slaves. Naturally, these individuals and their activities made a mark in the epigraphical record. However, despite the economic and social importance and the high political role of the properties of Roman emperors, in reality there is not any complete study dedicated to this subject. So many questions such as geographical distribution, administration and economic value of the patrimonium Caesaris in Hispania still unanswered. In this respect, we offer the result of the epigraphical survey to be a starting point of this research matter.
Natural resources and cultural interactions in the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Mediterranean. A tentative response from the island of Gavdos
Antonis Vratsalis-Pantelaios (University of Crete)
This paper aims at presenting some preliminary thoughts on the possible economic role and significance of the small island of Gavdos, off the southwestern coast of Crete, in the Libyan Sea. We will use as a case study the settlement site at Kavos Tsargoulio, which is set in a region of metamorphic rocks and minor copper deposits, and has provided abundant Neolithic evidence.
This apparently favoured micro-insular environment, where early metallurgical activities are very possibly involved, has encouraged our approach of the small peripheral –almost marginal- island of Gavdos! as a vivid and interactive partner in socioeconomic networks of the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. In which ways this small and remote place–but which is endowed with important natural resources-and its islanders’ community on the Mediterranean fringe can respond to wider material but also cultural demands of the time, and, perhaps, in the longue duree?
Jerusalem Walk of Fame: Pilgrimage, Burial Monuments and Roads in the City's Environs during the Early Roman Period
Boaz Zissu and Omri Abadi (Bar Ilan University)
Understanding various aspects of pilgrimage to temples is of importance to the study of past economy. Therefore the quest after the pilgrimage pathways to Jerusalem and its temple in the early Roman period (second half of the 1 st century BCE to the 1 st century CE) had attracted scholarly attention. Most studies based their assessments on geographic and topographic considerations, which seek to follow the most convenient routes to the city, and
the modern network of city’s roads and entrances, without taking into consideration various archaeological features around the city. The presence of burial monuments in proximity to the roads arriving at the city-gates is a common feature in almost any Roman city. In this paper we would like to propose and discuss a new reconstruction of the main roads to Jerusalem in the early Roman period, which is based on the location and visibility of
monumental tombs in the city's environs. Following the reconstructed roads, we will try to give a rationale to these routes, based on studies of pilgrimage and ritual practices.