Sessions/Panels

Der Kongress ist in 12 Sektionen gegliedert innerhalb derer thematisch strukturierte Single-, Double- und Triplepanels mit bis zu maximal 15 Vorträgen (Papers) stattfinden.

  1. Der Faktor Mensch: Demographie, Ernährung, Gesundheit, Epidemien etc.
  2. Ökologische Faktoren auf die Wirtschaft: Klima, Landschaft etc.
  3. Produktion: Landnutzung, Industrie, Technologie, künstlerische Produktion etc.
  4. Ressourcengewinnung: Bergbau, Technologie, Umweltverschmutzung etc.
  5. Distribution: Handel und Austausch, Monetarisierung, Netzwerke, Transport, Infrastruktur (z.B. Häfen) etc.
  6. Konsumption: Alltags- und Luxuskonsum, Abfall, Recycling, Ernährung etc.
  7. Ökonomie des Kultes: Investitionen (z.B. Kultbauten), religiöser und ritueller Konsum, Ökonomie des Todes etc.
  8. Die Rolle der Stadt in der antiken Wirtschaft: städtische Infrastruktur, Stadt-Umlandbeziehung etc.
  9. Die Ökonomie des Militärs in Krieg und Frieden
  10. Ökonomie des Wissens: Erziehung, Innovation, Bildung etc.
  11. Methodologie: Feldforschung, Naturwissenschaften, Quantifizierung etc.
  12. Andere Themen außerhalb des Hauptthemas

Session 1

The human factor: demography, nutrition, health, epidemics

Panel 1.1
(double)

Economy, society and health-related quality of life in the ancient world: Bioarchaeological perspectives from the Eastern Mediterranean

Day and Time:

Wednesday | 23 May | 09:00-13:30

Organisers:

Sofia Voutsaki (University of Groningen)
Anna Lagia (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg)

Speakers:

  1. Ursula Wittwer-Backofen (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg)
    Assessing long-term change in human health: perspectives from the Global History of Health Project
  2. Sherry Fox (Eastern Michigan University)
    The economic implications of zoonoses in the paleopathological analyses of human skeletal remains from the eastern Mediterranean in classical antiquity
  3. Eleanna Prevedorou (Wiener Laboratory & Arizona State University)
    Politics, power, and production in ancient Athens: the people of the Phaleron cemetery
  4. Anna Lagia (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg)
    Factors affecting health-related quality of life in classical contexts: bioarchaeological evidence from the Athenian Asty and the region of Lavrion in SE Attica
  5. Efthymia Nikita (The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia)
    Humanizing Antiquity: Biocultural Approaches to Identity Formation in Ancient Boeotia, central Greece
  6. Chryssa Bourbou (University of Fribourg)
    Living and Dying at the Periphery of the Society? First insights into a Classical-Hellenistic burial ground from Chania (Crete, Greece)
  7. Velissaria Vanna (UCL, London)
    Socioeconomic differentiation, son preference and women’s status in Hellenistic mainland Greece (3rd – 1st century BC): Unlocking the evidence from the North Cemetery of Demetrias, the second capital of the Macedonian Kingdom
  8. Lynne Schepartz (University of the Witwatersrand)
    Health-related quality of life in the Corinthian colony of Apollonia, Albania
  9. Sam Cleymans (KU Leuven)
    In Sickness and in Health: Diachronic Changes of Physical Health and Quality of Life at Sagalassos, SW Anatolia
  10. Maria Liston (University of Waterloo, Ontario)
    Inferring the presence of a leprosarium or hospital from the pathologies in the cemetery: Interpreting burials from Byzantine Thebes

External
Discussant:


Geoffrey Kron (University of Victoria)

Panel abstract

In recent years scholars studying the ancient economy have often claimed that the Greco-Roman world was characterized by prosperity and increasing economic growth. To support this claim, data from diverse sources are used, including those which describe the quality of life in relation to health, assessed through the use of biological measures such as longevity, stature, mortality, morbidity and diet within clearly defined contexts.

The main aim of the panel is to explore the concept of health-related quality of life vis-à-vis the ancient economy and society. Our interest arises from two different, though related developments: On the one hand, the study of modern-day and archaeological contexts from a multitude of sites reveals a close correlation between health and socioeconomic status. On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the integration of mortuary (archaeological, epigraphic, prosopographical) and bioarchaeological data, and an increasing number of bioarchaeological studies of eastern Mediterranean necropoleis, or other burial contexts.

Our main questions are: How should we explore the correlation between socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life? Which methodological and interpretive tools should we use? How can contextual information help us consider the socioeconomic status of the deceased? Is comparability of health data feasible across time and space and what are the pitfalls? Can health-related quality of life be used to infer socioeconomic inequalities in terms of status, gender, or age, or sociocultural phenomena such as deviance? Is it possible to understand differences among cities, or between urban and rural populations? In this panel we will discuss examples from Athens, Phaleron, Chania, Sagalassos and other sites in the eastern Mediterranean dating from the Early Iron Age to the Roman period.

We hope that the panel will provide the opportunity for an interdisciplinary discussion and a more nuanced understanding of the relation between socioeconomic differentiation and health-related quality of life in the ancient world. We also hope that this discussion will contribute towards a closer dialogue between archaeology, bioarchaeology and socioeconomic history.

Paper abstracts

1.

Ursula Wittwer-Backofen (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg) - Anastasia Papathanasiou (Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports, Ephorate of Palaeoanthropology and Speleology), Assessing long-term change in human health: perspectives from the Global History of Health Project

The need to trace change temporally and across space has for some time now been addressed through bioarchaeology. Two global projects, one concerning the Americas and another Europe, have been launched in this effort. In this paper the basic concepts of this endeavor, along with methodological issues on the effects of sample quality as well as the quantification and comparability of data across space and time are presented and data concerning historic Europe through modern times are discussed. The unprecedented for European populations sample size that was generated in this effort was clustered according to time periods taking into account a number of contextual variables such as elevation, topography, socioeconomic status, and settlement patterns. The implementation of this approach on skeletal assemblages from the Greek mainland is discussed along with recent data concerning diet in conjunction with documented cultural changes and bioarchaeological data from fully studied contexts.

2.

Sherry Fox (Eastern Michigan University), The economic implications of zoonoses in the paleopathological analyses of human skeletal remains from the eastern Mediterranean in classical antiquity

Zoonoses or diseases that are spread from animals to humans have afflicted human populations, in particular, since the domestication of animals, as people have been able to live both in greater numbers and in closer contact with animals. The economic implications of zoonotic diseases have been profound due often to the limited productivity of those burdened with zoonoses. This paper focuses upon zoonoses that have affected ancient populations in the eastern Mediterranean based upon the study of human remains from classical antiquity. Included among the zoonoses that have afflicted populations in classical antiquity in the region are malaria, brucellosis, and echinococcosis. Discussion of these zoonotic diseases involves the environmental and social factors implicated in the spread of these diseases within their archaeological contexts. In addition to paleopathological analyses, data are derived from ancient sources, early traveler accounts, premodern practices in the region, as well as from the results of modern, cutting-edge scientific analyses with aims to provide a rich portrayal of how zoonoses have affected the ancient economy of the eastern Mediterranean in classical antiquity.

3.

Eleanna Prevedorou (Wiener Laboratory & Arizona State University) - Jane Buikstra (Arizona State University), Politics, power, and production in ancient Athens: the people of the Phaleron cemetery

The polis of Athens has been one of the largest, wealthiest, and most influential city-states in the ancient Greek world. During the Archaic period (ca. 700-480 BC), Athens experienced major socio-political and religious changes, including the first governmental institutions, formal laws, citizenship formalization, evidence for chattel slavery, marked socio-political stratification, and conflict among the aristocratic families, ultimately leading to the rise of democracy. To date, such complex processes are mainly known to us through texts and artistic representations. The extensive cemetery excavated at Phaleron (ca. 8th-4th centuries BC) by the Ephorate of Antiquities of Western Attica, Piraeus, and the Islands during the construction of the Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center offers us an unparalleled view of everyday life in antiquity, as it appears to represent largely non-elite and potentially diverse strata. By integrating multiple lines of evidence ranging from archaeological science to historic records, the Phaleron Bioarchaeological Project aims to reconstruct the ancient lives of the non-elites, the commoners, and the marginalized that remain largely unexplored or silenced, in order to address archaeological questions regarding the interplay between residence, community membership, citizenship, and burial in Archaic Athens.

4.

Anna Lagia (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg) - Andreas Kapetanios (Ephorate of Antiquities of East Attica), Factors affecting health-related quality of life in classical contexts: bioarchaeological evidence from the Athenian Asty and the region of Lavrion in SE Attica

5.

Chelsey Schrock (University of Sheffield) - Victoria Sabetai (Academy of Athens) - Efthymia Nikita (The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia), Humanizing Antiquity: Biocultural Approaches to Identity Formation in Ancient Boeotia, central Greece

This paper presents the preliminary results of a Marie Skłodowska-Curie funded project focused on the bioarchaeological dimensions of kinship and social stratification in Archaic to Roman-era Boeotia (central Greece). In particular, our research explored genetic kinship and life quality markers in ancient Acraiphia to assess how clearly familial patterns and social divisions are visible in the skeletal record. Over 250 adult and juvenile skeletons have been analyzed. The very partially preserved nature of a large part of the assemblage necessitated the combination of diverse macroscopic and microscopic osteoarchaeological methods in order to effectively explore the aforementioned research questions. As such, palaeodemographic and palaeopathological markers have been recorded along with activity, dietary and biodistance indicators. The combination of the osteological information with funerary data pertaining to the organization of the cemetery and tomb typologies has provided interesting insights to the extent of intermarriage and differential social status in ancient central Greece. Even though our research is currently restricted to the cemetery of ancient Acraiphia, it will soon be expanded to other Boeotian necropoleis, in order to explore patterns of human mobility and life quality in a broader context.

6.

Chryssa Bourbou (University of Fribourg), Living and Dying at the Periphery of the Society? First insights into a Classical-Hellenistic burial ground from Chania (Crete, Greece)

During construction works at the modern national stadium of Chania (Crete, Greece) a rescue excavation revealed an extended burial ground. A part of this burial ground, dating to the second half of the 4th-middle of the 3rd c. BC., developed alongside a road, which probably led to it or provided a gate for the city, included ca. 70 pot burials, 43 pit graves (some with multiple inhumations), and 2 tile graves, without specific spatial organization. The location, high concentration of pot burials, mingled with pit graves of multiple inhumations, the discovery of a shackled individual and the preliminary results of the associated human skeletal remains, including two cases of trepanations, suggest a possible “atypical” burial ground -compared to current funerary data for the era. Did this burial ground serve for the “special dead”, those who presumably failed to meet distinguished rites of passages (fetuses buried in pots), or lived at the periphery of the society? Could it be related to the turbulences documented in the island during this period, few of such traces depicted so far in the bioarchaeological record? Generating a synthesis of documentary, archaeological and biological evidence an attempt will be made to reconstruct the osteobiographies of the individuals buried, the sociocultural choices behind their interment and how these regulations are possibly related to phenomena of marginality in terms of health-related issues, status or age.

7.

Velissaria Vanna (UCL, London), Socioeconomic differentiation, son preference and women’s status in Hellenistic mainland Greece (3rd – 1st century BC): Unlocking the evidence from the North Cemetery of Demetrias, the second capital of the Macedonian Kingdom

The present study offers an insight into socioeconomic variation in the most overlooked and controversial period in ancient Greek history focusing on bioarchaeological evidence from an area for which little information exists. Specifically, its aim is to address the issues of favourable treatment towards male children, the social position of women, and the differentiation between low- and high-status groups in Hellenistic Demetrias, through the study of oral pathology. Findings have revealed striking patterns discernable by both gender and socioeconomic status. Caries more frequently and severely affected socially privileged groups, namely high-status individuals and males. Interestingly, the exact opposite was the case for periodontal disease. In the high-status group, males had a higher proportion of hypoplastic teeth than females, whereas, in the low-status group, the opposite pattern was observed. Low-status individuals were affected by enamel defects twice as much as and three times more severely than their high-status counterparts. Demetrias appears to have been a strongly hierarchical society, in which men, particularly those that were members of the upper classes, were favoured over women. Moreover, male infants/children were given priority over female infants/children in terms of care and nutrition, although this behaviour most likely occurred only when there was a practical need for differential treatment.

8.

Lynne Schepartz (University of the Witwatersrand), Health-related quality of life in the Corinthian colony of Apollonia, Albania

9.

Sam Cleymans (KU Leuven), In Sickness and in Health: Diachronic Changes of Physical Health and Quality of Life at Sagalassos, SW Anatolia

Who were better off, the Romans or the Byzantines? This very simple question has led to a discussion in economic history with at least two opposing camps. On the one hand, scholars advocated Malthusian theory, claiming that, as Roman cities were more crowded, the Romans were less healthy than the Byzantines. Another group of scholars emphasized the investments by urban Roman imperial communities in infrastructure that improve hygiene and nutrition (e.g. sewers, public baths etc.). These historians therefore regard the Romans as more healthy than the Byzantines.
Yet, both perspectives are hypothetical and often lack an encompassing theoretical framework and detailed data analysis. In this respect, Quality of Life (QoL) studies can be helpful. This framework allows for placing physical health in a broader context, and looks for the factors influencing the health of populations in the past and present. As a case study for data analysis the Pisidian town of Sagalassos is chosen. This archaeological site has yielded a large dataset of both Roman imperial to late Roman burials (1st-4th cent. AD), and Middle Byzantine graves (11th-13th cent. AD). Following a combination of paleopathology, aDNA-analysis, diet reconstruction and mortality patterning, the physical health of these two populations can be contrasted. This health index allows for further comparison with QoL factors such as population density and available infrastructure. Most simple questions ask for a complex answer.

10.

Maria Liston (University of Waterloo, Ontario), Inferring the presence of a leprosarium or hospital from the pathologies in the cemetery: Interpreting burials from Byzantine Thebes

The history of the modern hospital in Greece begins in the early Byzantine period with the development of hospices organized by the Church. Often associated with monasteries, these provided food, shelter, and rudimentary care for the sick and dying. As leprosy (Hansen’s Disease) became widespread, debilitated patients often ended up in these facilities. Although the rigorous isolation of lepers was a later phenomenon, the frightening appearance and smell of patients with leprosy would have made them particularly unwelcome in communities. A recently excavated cemetery in Thebes, Greece appears to have been associated with one such hospital, although there is no historical documentation for its presence. The cemetery is located in the former Sanctuary of Ismenion Apollo, and the graves are clustered around the foundations of the temple of Apollo. Rectangular cuttings into the bedrock were used for multiple burials. In addition two mass graves with multiple simultaneous burials suggest a catastrophic event, probably a plague. There are multiple cases with definitive skeletal lesions that suggest advanced leprosy, and nearly every grave contains individuals with probable leprosy. In addition there are three individuals with advanced metastatic cancer, and an array of other tumors and infectious diseases. The concentration of severe pathologies is greater than would be found in an ordinary town cemetery, and we infer that an early Byzantine hospital was functioning in Thebes.

Panel 1.2
(double)

Wealthy and Healthy? Methodological approaches to non-élite burials

Day and Time:

Wednesday | 23 May | 14:30-19:00

Organisers:

Ute Kelp (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Berlin)
Wolf-Rüdiger Teegen (Universität München)

External
Discussant:


Andrea Binsfeld (Université du Luxembourg)

Panel abstract

Dichotomies are often rejected as misrepresenting the complexities of past societies. This is also the case for the distinction between élite and non-élite parts of the population. In this respect, economical aspects have been considered crucial for the constitution of ancient society: from the determinant for a class-based society to being an oscillation within the stratified pyramidal model of Roman society. In social history current research emphasizes the basic legal inequality in antiquity and a social stratification along the lines of status, honors and life style as opposed to modern time functional divisions. Consequently changes in wealth distribution potentially threaten the social order. Hence income based power relations e.g. performing euergetism may support political integration in a competitive society, but economical changes such as large accumulations result in political disintegration.

This model of social stratification is consistent with ancient sources and related topics in archaeology such as the Roman domus. Yet the analysis of ancient societies beyond the political system, leading actors and élite groups relies heavily on the archaeological record. Abundantly preserved burial sites present a major part of ancient testimonies. But again research on élite grave monuments is rather extensive whilst the evaluation of numerous less conspicuous burials in the Classical world remains wanting.

In terms of methodology quantifications prevailed, which – claiming an often class-based straightforward correlation between dimension and investment to status and wealth respectively – tended to disregard all manipulations of the dead as much as personal choices. Accordingly, the qualitative analysis of graves gained ground taking the social, relational and situational agency into account, but mostly without considering the nature of the postulated urban civic society. Thus, the social interpretation of funerary contexts including grave goods or, generally speaking, of value and its material equivalent in a particular time and place remains challenging.

Applicants are invited to use approaches in various fields of research employing archaeological and anthropological data as well as epigraphical records. Starting points to identify social settings may be health and nutrition, burial practices, variation and standardization in grave monuments, etc. Special interest will be given to medium-range theories taking case-based evidence into account.

Paper abstracts

1.

Nicoletta Di Carlo, Corredi e tipologie tombali infantili dalle necropoli della Sicilia centro-meridionale

In quasi tutte le società, nel corso del tempo, gli infanti ed i bambini rappresentano una categoria di defunti che è oggetto di trattamenti funerari particolari. Prima dell’VIII secolo, in Grecia, la loro identità di “non social person” determinava l’esclusione dai cimiteri “pubblici” o la loro presenza discontinua all’interno di alcune necropoli cittadine. Dalla metà circa dell’VIII sec.a.C., alcuni avvenimenti sociali provocano l’incremento della cura e dell’attenzione rivolte alle sepolture infantili. La tomba 2 di Polizzello, ad esempio, sembra documentare, nonostante la situazione di grave lutto per la comunità e la conseguente necessità di un seppellimento simultaneo, come non venne meno la volontà di dotare i piccoli defunti di un personale corredo di accompagno. Tale trattamento non sembra documentato in altre necropoli, come Sabucina, dove bisognerà attendere la fine del VI secolo e il contatto con la componente greca, prima che anche questa categoria si distingua nella necropoli. Casi di incinerazione di bambini sono documentate nella necropoli del Fusco a Siracusa, in quella classica di Passo Marinaro a Camarina e a Sabucina in una tomba databile alla metà del V secolo. Caso emblematico, che potrebbe collocarsi all’interno delle cosiddette “sepolture anomale” è rappresentato dal rito della “cefalia” documentato in diversi centri quali Butera, Rossomanno o Gela e che non presenta, allo stato attuale, un’interpretazione univoca.

2.

Christian Briesack (University of Bonn), Tomb and society in Orvieto in the 6th century BC. A study of different grave types

The necropolis of ancient Orvieto are one of the most important burial grounds in Etruria in Archaic times, mostly because of their size and urban layout, which consists of almost identical chamber tombs shaped like large cubes and build along horizontally and vertically arranged roads. Thus, these “cities of the dead” seem or rather pretend to be an image of the “cities of the living” which is why studying related tombs can have tremendous value for the analysis of social rank and society.
Fossa-tombs represent a special feature in the necropolis. This burial practice requires considerably fewer economic investment than burying the deceased in a chamber tomb in terms of space, architecture and grave goods. Therefore it was assumed in previous research that fossa-tombs belonged to the lower part of the Orvietan society. They were viewed as tombs for the household of wealthy families buried in the chamber tombs nearby.
The paper allows a closer look at these humble tombs and opens the way for different approaches to the complexity of the topic. The central question is whether or to what extent economic investment and dimension of the funeral context equal status and wealth in Orvieto. Furthermore it needs to be discussed which methods can be used considering possibilities and limits. Criteria for the research are: location, grave type, burial custom, grave goods and as far as possible age and gender of the deceased and the epigraphical record.

3.

Vasiliki Brouma (University of Nottingham), The economics of death in Hellenistic Rhodes: the case of the koina

Material evidence and display for afterlife suggest a conscious psychological preparation for death.However, display in the funerary sphere can also be indicative of various socioeconomic agendas in connection to the burial ritual.This paper presents a contextual approach to funerary economics in Hellenistic Rhodes.The focus is a case study related to the koina (associations) of foreigners and their burial provisions.The Rhodian epigraphic corpus detailing these provisions is particularly rich:most date to the 2nd and 1st c. BC and consist of honorary decrees and epitaphs.These texts describe that the members of the associations were honoured as evergetai post-morterm and were commemorated anually through a number of activities (i.e. banqueting) that were organised by the living members.Also, it appears that their status in the group was consolidated in regard to their financial contribution.And although the amount of written sources is remarkable,little do we know about the actual material evidence associated with these burial provisions.In this paper,I will argue that a material-centered approach can throw light on the funerary ritual of the associations and provide a more accurate picture on the economics of these rites.A closer examination of the tombs and the funerary monuments associated with the koina,will enable us to reflect on various economic aspects of the funerary ritual such as individual and collective choice in the socioeconomic setting of Hellenistic Rhodes.

4.

Konstantina Chavela (Hellenic Ministry of Culture & Sports. Ephorate of Antiquities of Achaia), "Poor" indigenous and "wealthy" Macedonians(?). The evidence of burial practices around the Thermaic Gulf (Thessaloniki)

The archaeological site of Toumba Thessaloniki spreads over a plateau to the east of the city of Thessaloniki. It includes first a conical mound (tell) with layers of the Bronze Age, the Iron Age and historic times, and also a trapezoidal (almost flat) area extending around the mound itself with settlement layers mainly from the Early Iron Age, down to the end of the 4th century BC. In addition, outside the boundaries of the ancient village an extensive cemetery has been identified dating from the 8th century down to the 4th century BC. The mortuary practices of the cemetery throughout its use are defined by a uniform approach to burials as is indicated by the constant presence of single inhumations, the almost exclusive use of pits for the interments, the standard position of extended bodies and the preference of "local" pottery and limited presence of metal objects. However, a range of variables in the funerary process can be detected which somewhat breaks up this picture of homogeneity: these differences may have been crucial to the management and definition of social and other relations. Already in the 6th century BC discrepancies are found. These are more pronounced during the 4th century and may reflect the existence of different subgroups in the community: they may be expressions of different social status or different cultural identities.

5.

Angela Pancheva (Balkan Heritage Foundation), Funeral Wreaths in the Context of the Macedonian, Thracian Late Classical and Hellenistic Burial Complexes and the Necropoleis of the West Pontic Greek Poleis. Functional and Comparative Analysis

The proposed paper analyzes the chronological distribution of the different types of golden and clay funeral wreaths, and their symbolical function in the context of Late Classical and Hellenistic burial complexes from the ancient regions of Macedonia, Thrace and the necropoleis of the West Pontic Greek poleis.
In the period spanning the second half of the 4th and the first quarter of the 3rd century BCE, the number of burial complexes containing funeral wreaths increased steadily across the entire Greek world. A large number of outstanding gold specimens and their gilded clay replica were found in the necropoleis of ancient Macedonia and Thrace. Wreathed and “wreath bearing” figures are also represented in the wall painting scenes in some of the most famous Macedonian and Thracian chamber tombs, dated into this period. The functional similarities between the main categories of grave goods from these complexes e.g. metal vessels and weapons, lead to the hypothesis of the existence of a “normalized” burial model in the two adjoining ancient regions of Macedonia and Thrace. At the same time, clay wreaths are also often to be found as a part of the inventory of the burial complexes in the necropoleis of western Pontic Greek cities, such as Apollonia Pontica, Messambria, Odessos, Kalatis, as well as the island Samothrace. In general, these graves contain a small number of objects, mostly represented by locally made clay pots.

6.

Hale Guney (University of Cologne), Different Grave Types in the Choria Considiana

Choria Considiana was an extensive Roman estate in central Anatolia and its different types of grave monuments belonged to non-élite inhabitants of this rural area, yet prominent within their own communities. In its northern part, today encompassing Mihalıççık County in modern Turkey, an epigraphic survey, conducted in this area since 2014, revealed a number of fifty inscriptions most of which date back to the second and third centuries AD. This county, roughly situated to the northeast of the ancient city of Dorylaion (modern Eskişehir) was part of north-east Phrygia, the ancient region neighbouring Bithynia and under Roman rule part of the province of Galatia. These inscriptions offer new information about the cultural and social status of the inhabitants of this area and provide evidence for the existence of Galatian and Thracian names, local cults as well as the local stonemasonry in northeast Phrygia.
Taking this evidence into account, the paper focuses on three necropolis areas in Dinek, Gürleyik and Otluk villages. While in one case a new group of grave stelai enriches the picture of regional styles in Roman Phrygia, the others present the variation of grave monuments – including doorstone monuments – within a single necropolis. Thus, employing epigraphical data as well as archaeological records, the aim of this paper is to identify social settings in the Choria Considiana.

7.

Maria Stella Busana (University of Padua), Textile workers in the Roman Venetia: from the tools to the skeletal remains

The Padua University has for years carried out many researches on textile economy in Roman Venetia (North-Eastern Italy), an area famous for the wool industry according to the ancient literary and epigraphic sources. After investigating topographic evidence and sheep breeding settlements, the PONDERA Project was focused on a systematic survey of archaeological textile tools found in the region in order to analyze technological and socio-economical aspects. After that, the TRAMA Project was aimed at identifying samples of organic and mineralized fabrics, offering for the first time a real picture of textiles produced in the area. Finally, the LANIFICA Project is now focused on tools coming from funerary contexts to enlighten the ideological meaning and the connection with the socio-economical profile of the deceased, combining both the grave goods and the human remains. The results of these researches give us a comprehensive picture of the textile manufacturing, from the tools to the human beings involved. The new goal is now identifying the ancient textile workers and their health conditions, thanks to the study of the occupational markers and the pathological affects produced by textile activities. In addition, we will try to distinguish the skeletal modifications depending on the different kinds of loom in use. This approach could give an original contribution to the knowledge of both the occupational health in Roman society and the weaving technology in the Roman Venetia.

8.

Ricardo Fernandes (Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History), A glimpse at the bioarchaeological history of the late antiquity necropolis of Centocelle (Rome): results from a multiproxy approach

Given an emphasis on historical sources the vast majority of the people that lived within the Roman world remain voiceless. In their aid, isotopic analyses of archaeological human remains provide important insights into the diet, nutrition, and mobility of single individuals. Nonetheless, available Roman isotopic data is still sparse and periods of contrasting forms of political and social organization, such as late antiquity, remain comparatively unexamined.
Burials from a Roman villa complex next to the Via Labicana (within modern day Centocelle, Rome) offer an opportunity to reconstruct the lifeways of late antiquity Romans. A pilot interdisciplinary research project was undertaken that included osteological analysis, radiocarbon dating, and multiple isotopic analyses of human remains.
Radiocarbon dates revealed a complex chronology while isotopic results demonstrated that the Centocelle individuals likely lived for several years in the region prior to death. Most individuals had comparatively poor diets with low contributions from animal protein and major caloric contributions from plant foods. Given the limited sampling different interpretations of the results are put forward. Namely, if reconstructed diets reflect a specific socio-economic condition, a cultural choice, or a more general trend towards impoverishment within late antiquity. This provides a basis for future extended research into the lifeways of late antiquity Romans.

Panel 1.3
(double)

The economic contribution of migrants to ancient societies. Technological transfer, integration, exploitation and interaction of economic mentalities

Day and Time:

Thursday | 23 May | 09:00-13:30

Organiser:

Raffaella Da Vela (University of Leipzig)

Panel abstract

The proposed panel session aims to discuss the impact of migrations on ancient economies. We aim to understand the economic role of migrants in the local communities and their position in the host societies through a wide range of contributions about ancient economic spaces in the Mediterranean and in Central Europe. In particular, we will discuss the function of migration and mobility within the fields of production, exchange and consumption.

In the field of the production, we are going to analyse technological developments and economic growth in host communities following the cultural interaction and the transmission of technological knowledge due to human mobility. Furthermore, we will analyse the social position of the migrants in the work market of their new communities and in the new settled territories. A key aspect will be the contribution of migrants to the production and their networking role for the exchange. The ports of trade will be taken in consideration as a meeting-point of different economic systems. In the field of consumption, we are going to present the coexistence of different economic mentalities, as factors of innovation and conflict in local communities. Consumerism will be taken in consideration to understand dynamics of interaction, integration and segregation. The consumption behavior will be considered as proxy to understand the social identities of migrants and their expressions.

The speakers are asked to compare their case studies to build a common platform of discussion, overtaking chronological and geographical specificities, in the way to discuss more general methodological and theoretical questions: Which archaeological data are suitable to detect the relationships between economic behavior and cultural identities? How did different economic and political systems affect the position of migrants in the local communities and their participation to local and global economies? Which are the effects of different strategies of economic integration of migrants in the host societies on the economic development and on the social stability of local markets and communities? Is our interpretation biased by our modern perspectives or is it possible to contextualize an agent based perception of the economic role of ancient migrants?

Paper abstracts

1.

Lukas Bohnenkämper (Universität Basel), Down to the river for pay - Migrant workforce in Middle Kingdom Egypt

The paper will discuss the archaeological and textual documentation of migrants during the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (ca. 2040–1730 B.C.) and their different economic activities and positions as far as they are traceable. The various interactions with people from Upper and Lower Nubia (Kerma Culture, C-Group Culture, Pan Grave Culture, Medjay), the Levant and the Aegean occurred in a time when Egypt took increasing interest in foreign trade and direct control over neighbouring areas to the south. Especially the Levantine settlers in Auaris/ Tell el-Dab'a were assumably crucial for the extensification of Egypt's trade with the societies of the eastern Mediterranean. Others, like the Medjay, had important roles in the Egyptian military as soldiers and border patrols.

2.

Kewin Peche-Quilichini (Univ. Paul-Valéry Montpellier, CNRS), Migrations and economical interactions in the North Tyrrhenian basin (1500 BC – 100 AD): the examples of Corsican and Elban detroits

The island of Elba has been a key transit point between the Tyrrhenian route of cabotage and the itinerary linking the largest islands of the northern and central sector of the Tyrrhenian Sea. That is also reflected in the funerary practice. The bronze finds of the EIA. clearly indicate broader cultural horizons of reference, enabling the reconstruction of a network not only within the Populonia area and the most advanced centers of the nearby Tyrrhenian coast, but also with inner central Italy and, above all, with Corsica and Sardinia. The vitality of the local metalworking is favored not only by the direct availability of the raw materials but also from contacts with consolidated manufacturing knowledges coming from the neighboring areas. In the LBA–EIA, local burial customs are evidence of the cultural syncretism between Elba and the mid-western territories of Corsica and Sardinia.
In Corsica, this relay situation is also evident. In the MBA, connections with Peninsular Italy give rise to the development of a local facies of ceramic style. In the Late Bronze Age, various productions illustrate profound interactions between the south of the island and the north of Sardinia, possible echo of exogamic practices. In the EIA, relations with Villanovan Italy are materialized by the introduction of bronze artefacts. At the end of the LIA, the circulation of indigenous pottery attests migrations of the islanders towards Tuscany and the island of Elba.

3.

Jeremy Hayne, Phoenician migrants? interactions and integrations at Nuraghe S'Urachi, West Sardinia

In the prehistoric world the idea of migration focuses our attention on the individual or group rather than on that of the more usual term of 'colonisation', often o overlaid by preconceptions of power and inequality. In fact, migration in the sense of movement of peoples is a key concept in archaeology as the resulting change and/or continuity in host societies are often the most important study areas. This paper first focuses on the movement of people during the first millennium in Sardinia, especially the formation of settlements in the south west of the island by Phoenician settlers. Was the development of settlements a result of colonisation or migration? Secondly it examines the material culture of the Phoenician settlement at the indigenous site of S'Urachi, what economic role did the Phoenicians play in the later life of the nuraghe and how is this visible in the archaeological record?

4.

Marion Bolder Boos (Technische Universität Darmstadt), Trading trinkets for silver? Some thoughts on the Phoenicians' economic impact on indigenous societies in Iberia

It has often been assumed that the Phoenician expansion in the first half of the first millennium BCE was largely due to their search for raw materials, especially metal. In order to secure their trade, the Phoenicians were thought to have established small settlements along the way to serve as ports-of-trade for their ships and as marketplaces for the exchange of goods, but without their presence having much impact on the indigenous societies. With the realization that some of those ports-of-trade were actually situated at such a short distance from one another (e.g. along the Andalusian coast) that their purpose as mere stepping stones along the way westward seems superfluous, and with a growing interest in the indigenous populations themselves, this model has come under scrutiny.

The aim of this paper is to take a closer look at the interrelations between the Phoenician migrants and the local populations along the coast of Andalusia during the 9th to 6th centuries BCE.

5.

Heba Abd el Gawad (Helwan University), Integration, exploitation or everything in between?: Greek immigrants and the economic negotiations in Ptolemaic Egypt

Approaches to Ptolemaic Egypt tend to frame it within the narrow biased frame of colonialism. In this respect, Egypt is perceived as being colonised by the Ptolemies and the Egyptians are traditionally perceived as the weakest link. This paper challenges current approaches to the immigration economy in Ptolemaic Egypt, highlighting the need to rethink of the impact of our modern biases on the interpretation of the multicultural past. It proposes a more balanced contextual approach to immigration placing the multi-layered socio-economic negotiations between the various social groups at central stage.

6.

Simeon Tzonev (University of Basel), Neue Beobachtungen zur graeco-ägyptischen Plastikherstellung

Infolge der Eroberung Ägyptens durch Alexander kam es zu einer grossen Migrationswelle von Hellenen, die zu einer wichtigen Basis der ptolemäischen Herrschaft wurden. Dabei kam es zu vielfältigen Kulturkontakten mit den Einheimischen.
Die Deutung der Plastiken aus dem hellenistischen Ägypten bewegte sich lange in dem Spannungsfeld zwischen kultureller Verschmelzung einerseits und der parallelen Koexistenz zweier eigenständiger Kulturen andererseits. Die genauere Betrachtung ergibt allerdings ein komplexeres Bild. Die in der Plastikproduktion fassbaren Kulturkontakte reichen von der Integration ägyptischer Themen und einzelner Bildaspekte in sonst in griechischer Tradition stehender Bildwerke, bzw. griechischer Themen und Bildaspekte in ägyptischen Bildwerken, bis hin zu stark hybriden Bildwerken. Besonderes Augenmerk verdient hierbei die Frage der Materialien bzw. der herstellenden Handwerker. Da die Arbeit in nicht traditionell verwendeten Materialien für ungeübte Handwerker kaum mit Erfolg umsetzbar ist, liegt die Erklärung nahe, dass es eine enge Kooperation zwischen Handwerkern aus den verschiedenen Kulturkreisen gab, die zum intensiven Austausch von Know-how führte. Diese genannten Aspekte des Technologie- und Kulturaustausches sollen Gegenstand dieses Beitrags sein. Es geht dabei auch um die politische Tragweite der Repräsentationskunst, da es sich um gewollte und zuweilen gesteuerte Prozesse handelt, deren kulturhistorischer Hintergrund hinterfragt werden muss.

7.

Hale Guney (University of Cologne), The Impact of Migrant Communities from Asia Minor in the Balkan Provinces during the Roman Period: The cases of Bithynia and Galatia

The foundation of new provinces in the Balkans under the Principate facilitated economic connections between previously established neighbour provinces in Asia Minor and the Balkan provinces. There were two main reasons for economic relationship connected one another: the first was rich natural sources in the Balkans and the second was the need for urbanization in newly conquered land which was non-urbanised and non-monetized inhabited by non-Roman population.
This paper focuses on the migrant communities from Bithynia and Galatia in the Balkan provinces (Pannonia, Dacia, Moesia and Thrace) during the second and third centuries AD and it aims to provide a detailed survey for the economic impact of migrant people in the Balkans. For this reason, first, the cults originated from Galatia and attested in the Balkans will be surveyed and examined. Secondly, the paper takes archaeological evidence into account to evaluate the economic impact which is more visible in consumption patterns.
These results show that the cities in Asia Minor made an important contribution to the development of the Balkan provinces in terms of urbanization and monetization.

8.

Hale Guney (University of Cologne), The Impact of Migrant Communities from Asia Minor in the Balkan Provinces during the Roman Period: The cases of Bithynia and Galatia

The foundation of new provinces in the Balkans under the Principate facilitated economic connections between previously established neighbour provinces in Asia Minor and the Balkan provinces. There were two main reasons for economic relationship connected one another: the first was rich natural sources in the Balkans and the second was the need for urbanization in newly conquered land which was non-urbanised and non-monetized inhabited by non-Roman population.
This paper focuses on the migrant communities from Bithynia and Galatia in the Balkan provinces (Pannonia, Dacia, Moesia and Thrace) during the second and third centuries AD and it aims to provide a detailed survey for the economic impact of migrant people in the Balkans. For this reason, first, the cults originated from Galatia and attested in the Balkans will be surveyed and examined. Secondly, the paper takes archaeological evidence into account to evaluate the economic impact which is more visible in consumption patterns.
These results show that the cities in Asia Minor made an important contribution to the development of the Balkan provinces in terms of urbanization and monetization.

9.

 Jan Bulas (Jagiellonian University in Kraków), Migrants from the north in the Tisa Basin, in the Roman period. Trade, conflict and politics

There are traces recorded in the archaeological material culture, dated to the late 2nd and early 3rd centuries, uncovered in the area of the Tisa river basin that suggest the migration of the barbarian tribes from the north of the Carpathians. Those migrants are usually connected with the Vandals who are also recorded in the historical sources of the time (Cassius Dio) in that area. While arrival of the new peoples into the region probably took place in the time of the turmoil of the Marcommanic Wars, it seems that not in the long period of time new political and demographical situation resulted in establishing new ties between different ethnic groups inhabiting the not only upper Tisa but wider areas. Strong connections between different cultures are visible in grave inventories of Przeworsk culture, where among others imports Roman weapons are found. Moreover, on the barbarian territory neighbouring the Roman provinces the exact copies of Roman pottery started to be produced. Other finds like the elite graves in the region suggest strong role of the trade and political relations in shaping this new cultural phenomenon. The paper will concentrate on the question how all of those factors influenced peoples who settled the area in the Roman period as well as how influences coming from different directions shaped archaeological culture.

10.

Alexander Boix (University of Bonn), Migration of Athenian Potters and Painters in the Late 5th Century BC

The paper focuses on the migration of Athenian potters and painters who left Athens in order to find new employments in various regions of Greece in the context of the socio-political crisis caused by the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). This paper will take in account the impact of the integration of the migrated artisans in existing or re-established workshops on the social and economic structures. The craftsmen introduce themselves into their new homelands, not only as workers, but moreover as medi-ators of their expertise. My case study consists in the red-figure vase painting fabrics that since the late archaic and early classical period has been distributed into the entire Mediterranean region exclusively by Athenian traders. Therefore, the concept of exchange and the mutual influence of indigenous and 'migrated' art will be reviewed and, furthermore, the importance of new emission centers for the local market as well as for the Athenian trade in these regions will be analysed. Finally, the paper will dis-cuss the political and social developments and the related reasons, which led to the migration of these craftsmen.

Session 2

The impact od natural environmental factors on ancient economy: climate, landscape

Panel 2.1
(double)

The Ancient City and Nature's Economy in Magna Graecia and Sicily

Day and Time:

Friday | 25 May | 09:00-13:30

Organisers:

Johannes Bergemann and Mario Rempe
(Universität Göttingen)

Panel abstract

The proposed panel focuses on the interaction of ancient cities with their environmental surroundings. Reconstructions of landscapes and paleoenvironments shall be presented in order to shed light on this processes. Landscape Archaeology, especially in cooperation with Natural Sciences offers a wide repertoire of methods for the reconstruction of ancient environments and changing patterns of human-environment interaction. Sites can be contrasted with these reconstructions of their natural environment and be further investigated. A connection of environmental and socioeconomic changes visualizes cultural landscapes, which emerge within the territories of ancient cities in Magna Graecia. Environmental studies are thereby creating a more detailed vision of an area's historical development. Magna Graecia and sicily are of high interest for this question as the coming together of different cultures may have had a chancing impact even on the environment. Unfortunately, comprehensive studies, which consider environment and landscape change in South Italy and Sicily are still rather an exception. The speakers of the panel will present their approaches and results in various case studies in South Italy and Sicily, demonstrating the potential of an interdisciplinary approach to an ancient city and its territory. Thus, the survey projects in Agrigento and Kamarina of the University of Göttingen shall be presented with regard to their insights into settlement patterns and socio-economic processes, but also in connection to their paleoenvironmental reconstructions. The interdependence between landscapes and humans and potential patterns of sustainable actions by the ancient settlers shall receive special attention.

Paper abstracts

1.

Anna Maria Mercuri, Palynological approach to economy and human impact reconstruction. Examples from the Greek colonial system (Metaponto area) and Roman agrarian settlements (central Sicily).

Archaeopalynology and archaeobotany are among the key disciplines in the understanding both present-day landscapes and past human-environment relationships.
In archaeological contexts, plant remains help to recognize different types of land use: a) exploitation of plant resources; b) cultivation, i.e. the planting and care of useful plants; c) breeding carrying out the increase of pastures and selection of unpalatable plants by animal browsing; d) settlements with spreading of ruderal and nithrophilous plants. Pollen and Non Pollen Palynomorphs (a set of other microscopical records of biological origin, mainly including fungi and algae) are especially useful to discriminate these types of actions.
In the Metaponto area, the palynological research has been carried out on samples collected from archaeological contexts, mainly farmhouses and rural settlements of the Greek colonization. This allowed to improve the knowledge of plant species present and/or used in the sites, and environmental and land-use changes during the Greek phase of occupation.
In central Sicily, pollen analyses on Roman farmhouse and rural settlements have been particularly worthwhile for palaeo–environmental/economical local reconstructions. Our data bring evidence and details about the intense land exploitation that contributed to transform the natural environment of this island into the cultural landscape at the origin of the modern agrarian landscape in central Mediterranean.

2.

Johannes Bergemann (Universität Göttingen), Culture and nature in landscape

Three survey projects in Sicily, in Gela, Agrigento and Camarina have lead to the result, that ancient econimic live must be regarded as a complex system. The impact of nature and natural factors like moving coastlines or depleted soil on human live got clear. The paper will introduce to the problem of the panel and show the settlement systems of three naturally different zones of Sicily and the natural impact on human live.

3.

Mario Rempe (Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen), The Chora of Kamarina from Archaic to Roman Times- a sustainable Cultural Landscape?

Within the scope of the Göttingen Survey of the Kamarina Chora (Southeast Sicily), manifest changes in the settlement patterns are demonstrable, especially between the Greek and Roman era. The Greek colonists did plainly use other places and pockets within the landscape and environment. Several palaeo-environmental approaches were carried out to check if the change of settlement patterns coincides with changes within the cultural landscape and/or natural disaster. The talk will focus on physical changes on the landscape, as the development of the fluvial terraces and the effects of land use and erosion are considered. In connection with these changes the results of a pollen core, which was taken in the middle of the Greek Chora, will be presented and discussed with regard to its implications for economic and ecological changes.
After contrasting geomorphological and ecological changes with settlement patterns in Kamarina, the talk will offer further considerations on some contexts in the Hinterland of Agrigento, another area surveyed by the Göttingen Institute in recent years.

4.

Elena Mango (Universität Bern), Topographical and Urbanistic Considerations Regarding Himera – New Evidence from the Piano del Tamburino

This paper treats work carried out by the University of Berne in collaboration with the Archaeological Park of Himera since 2012. Our research has thrown new light and importance on the area of the colony of Himera referred to as the Piano del Tamburino, an area that has received little attention in the more than 50 years of research at Himera.
Following initial extensive study of the morphology and topography of the Piano del Tamburino with investigations employing remote sensing, surveys and various geophysical methods (geomagnetic, geoelectric, electric tomography, georadar), excavations commenced in 2012. The results to date from this multidisciplinary approach have provided new insights about the environment and development of the Piano del Tamburino, especially regarding the aspects of the interactions between the natural surroundings and the ancient polis, between different urban spaces and social activity zones, all of which contribute to a new understanding of the cultural landscape of the city. This is of special significance given Himera's unique geographic location on the northern shore of Sicily with its orientation toward the Tyrrhenian Sea and its trade with the Phoenicians and the Etruscans, as well as given its ethnic and cultural context – situated at the crossroads of various spheres of interest – in an indigenous Sican territory near the Phoenician cities of Soluntum and Palermo.

5.

Oscar Belvedere, Ancient Landscapes and Economy in the district of Northern Imera river (Sicily), from Prehistory to Early Medieval Times. A comparative analysis with the Cignana hinterland (Agrigento, South Sicily).

The aim of this paper is to present the palaeo-environmental approaches and preliminary results in the district of Northern Imera river, corresponding to the territory of the ancient cities of Himera (destroyed in 409 BC) and Thermae Himeraeae (founded in 407 BC). The area is located in the North-West of Sicily, and it is mainly characterized by hilly landscape crossed by rivers facing the Thyrrenian Sea, and by a mountainous landscape (the Madonie) on the eastern side.
Comparing the results of the archaeological excavations (in the city of Himera, and in the rock-shelter of Vallone Inferno), with topographical and palaeo-environmental analysis (both in the Northern Imera river and in the Madonie), we have taken into consideration relevant aspects regarding the ancient habitat and human activities in the coastal area, and in the hilly and mountain contexts South and East of Himera, from Prehistory to Late Antiquity.
Strong erosion is well recognizable inside the city of Himera and in the surroundings. It is possible that it has originated in Late-Archaic and Classical Ages, maybe connected to anthropic activities. Furthermore, transformations of the territory have occured during Late Antiquity and Early Medieval Age.
In addition, a preliminary comparative analysis can be made with the area of Cignana, in southern Sicily, East of Agrigento. Cignana is a hilly context near the coast, crossed by the road system connecting the East and West of the island.

6.

Andreas Heiss, Cultivation of diversity and diversity of cultivation: Archaeobotany in Elymian and Greek regions in western Sicily

Interactions between the Greek, Elymian, and Phoenician civilisations in Early Iron Age Sicily were diverse, and fluctuating between trade, acculturation, and waging war. These aspects are already quite well-documented in their material cultures. However, bioarchaeological documents for differences and commonalities in agricultural regimes, food habits, and traded goods are still rare. We contrast archaeobotanical data from the small (Elymian?) settlements on Monte Polizzo and on Monte Iato with those from the Greek polis of Selinous, in an attempt to outline aspects of agricultural production and consumption. The results are discussed against the contrasting backgrounds of Greek vs. Elymian settlement, village vs. polis, and mountains vs. coastal plains.

7.

Massimo Cultraro, Living around lava flows and volcanic mud lakes: Settlement and Landscape transformations in the western slopes of Etna from the Early Iron Age to the Classical Times

The western slopes of the Etna represent an area of interest for investigating the interaction of settlements and environmental in a long term perspective. Intensive survey activities carried out in the latest thirty years have provided a reliable source of data for examining settlement dynamics from prehistory onwards. The main interest is related to the long-term activity of Etna and its impact on the ancient landscape, either natural and human. Although a large scientific literature on the volcanic evidence of this area has been produced, comprehensive studies on the relationships between human settlement and environmental transformations are rare.
The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the different levels of interaction between human communities and their environmental surroundings. The research, which is based on selected examples, is organized in the following points.
The first one is the influence of climatic changes, which can be reconstructed focusing on the evidence of Gurrida Lake (Randazzo), located at 835 m. above sea level; based on a multiproxy investigations, a reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental dynamics indicate that the Early Iron Age (1100-800 cal. BCE) was more arid than the preceding Bronze Age.
The second research line is to reconstruct some changes in the human landscape related to the volcanic events.
The third and last focus is on the role played by specific volcanic phenomena on the religious system of the local communities.

8.

Roksana Chowaniec (University of Warsaw), Late Hellenistic to Later Roman/Byzantine periods faunal and flora assemblage in the ancient Akrai (south–eastern Sicily). Paleoenvironmental and food circulation reconstruction.

This presentation examine data regarding the paleoenvironmental reconstruction and food circulation during the Late Hellenistic to Later Roman/Byzantine periods in ancient Akrai (Greek colony and Roman town), SW Sicily. It presents a new bioarchaeological, archaeobotanical, geological data and archaeological artifacts. It is first considerations which apply only to the data from recent studies of the town (2010-2017). The results of archaeometric studies (lipid analysis, isotopic analysis, the osteological and botanical remains) will be present and it provides a cohesive image of changes in environment and food sources over the mentioned periods. Materials show that Greek, and later Roman occupations caused significant environmental changes. Since the 6th c. BC various forms of human activities were present and then intensified here. The intensive human occupation and growing population damaged the natural landscape, but also allowed it to foster breeding and cultivation. The Greeks and the Romans, just as their predecessors, degraded the local natural environment by hunting, fishing, removal of forests by cutting timber, obtaining ground water, planting; and was further exacerbated by deeper and more intensive plowing, use of queries, and clay digging. The Akrai's land became drier and depleted of natural sources. The studies in ancient town are possible thanks to the cooperation between Polo Regionale di Siracusa per i siti e i muse archeologici and University of Warsaw.

9.

Annapaola Mosca (Università di Roma "La Sapienza"), Natural environmental factors and human settlement in Western Sicily: the example of Lilybaeum

The paper focuses on relationship between environmental factors and human settlement in Western Sicily from the V century BC until Late Antiquity in the area around the main center of Lilybaeum. The interdependence between cultural landscape and natural environmental factors has been analyzed during archaeological surveys we undertook to understand the changes in settlement pattern.
Coastal lagoons and ponds, wells of drinkable water, quarries, fertile soil and the peculiar vegetation have characterized the organization of ancient settlement in the area between Lilybaeum and Mazara del Vallo. Particular cultures, like small palms growing on rocky soil, but also wheat, olive trees and vineyards may have played an important role in the inland economy. The opportunity to practice herding due to the proximity of the mountain pastures of Erice has also contributed to the formation of ancient settlement.
But, above all, the presence of the ports of Lilybaum and the Mazaro river that was used as a haven for boats and the the possibility of trade with North Africa due to the proximity to the African coasts probably influenced the wealthy owners in choosing this Sicilian area to build their houses. Through archaeological data we can understand settlment changes over the centuries, until the apparent loss of importance in the settlement after the Vandalic period.

Panel 2.2
(double)

The impact of rivers on ancient economies

Day and Time:

Wednesday | 23 May | 09:00-13:30

Organisers:

Christof Berns and Sabine Huy
(Universität Bochum)

Panel abstract

Landscapes shaped by rivers provide characteristics and specific conditions, which have a great impact on the economic life of people living in fluvial contexts. Archaeologists so far concentrated on rivers as routes of transportation. Primarily, rivers have been considered as a frame for studies on the distribution of commodities. But especially geo-archaeological research has led to a better understanding of the complex effects of rivers on social communities. Significant geomorphic changes of river-landscapes have been proven at many sites. The different conditions of a river – i. e. seasonal (flooding, low water, icing, etc.) as well as on long-term effects (changing river courses, sedimentation etc.) but also altering possibilities of exploitation – force people to live in close relationship with the watercourse. Simultaneously the river provides specific chances for economic activities. It is the aim of the panel to investigate rivers as dynamic factors that structure ancient communities and have an impact on their economic systems. We hope to specifically look at the various functions of rivers as natural resources, the connective links and at the implications resulting from environmental changes. We seek contributions on single rivers as case studies or wider, systematic approaches addressing one or more of the following themes and questions: To what extend are rivers exploited for the supply of fresh water or foodstuff? Are there indications of infrastructural provisions such as harbours or dams? Does the use of rivers as transportation route result in shared patterns of consumption between the communities living along a river course? What types of risks and opportunities result directly from natural and/or anthropogenic changes of river landscapes, both in short- and long-term perspective?

Paper abstracts

1.

Sabine Huy (Ruhr-Universität Bochum), The Economy of the Don River Communities - Driven by the River or by Land Routes?

The present paper examines economic connections along the River Don (in the western part of the Russian Federation) between the late 7th and the early 3rd century BC. The analysed time span revealed several clusters of settlements and burial fields, unevenly distributed along the entire main river course and its tributaries. An interconnection of these micro-regions is anticipated based on Greek imports encountered in each of them.
Trade between the micro-regions has been hitherto always interpreted as an outcome of the river route, the most obvious and easiest mean of transport. However, the spatial analysis of the distribution of settlements and burials shows a distinctive pattern, suggesting overland routes as substantially shorter ones. This fact alongside with characteristic topographic features (including a terrain model and the water regime of the rivers), challenged the original interpretation of the trade as being conducted exclusively via rivers. Hence, this in turn leads to the question of whether the main trade was driven by a combination of land- and waterways?
We search for an answer through two independent methodological approaches. One examines the archaeological evidence (including the distribution of sites and their spectra of findings), the other one analyses the cheapest routes between the micro-regions, applying a GIS based anisotropic least cost path analysis. The final results are interpreted with respect to the outcomes of both methodological approaches.

2.

Helmut Brückner (Universität zu Köln), Life cycles of islands and harbours – the case study of the Maiandros river and the city of Miletos

During the past millennia, the formerly flourishing harbour city of Miletos and its environs have experienced major palaeo-geographical and palaeo-ecological changes, caused by the post-glacial sea-level rise, tectonic activities, the delta progradation of the Maiandros (Maeander, Büyük Menderes), and the continuous human impact since Late Chalcolithic times. Based on historical accounts, archaeological criteria, and geoarchaeological research it is possible to reconstruct the spatio-temporal evolution of the landscape. Analyses of sediment cores collected around the Temple of Athena revealed that sea level reached its highest stand there during the Early Bronze Age. A similar pattern is evident around the later Sanctuary of Apollo Delphinius, where cultural debris from the Late Chalcolithic period is covered by shallow marine sediments. The environmental changes with high erosion and accumulation rates contributed to the rapid transformation of the Milesian archipelago with five islands to the Milesian Peninsula, which started during the 2nd millennium BC by the evolution of tombolos and was later supported by intentional infill. Siltation caused by the progradation of the Maeander delta since Roman Imperial times largely silted-up the harbours of the city, subsequently integrating the Milesian peninsula into the floodplain. Today, Miletos is situated some 8 km inland.

3.

Silvia Paltineri (Università degli Studi di Padova) - Mirella T. A. Robino (Università degli Studi di Pavia) - Federica Wiel-Marin (Ruhr-Universität Bochum), Flüsse als Wirtschaftsfaktor. Der Handel zwischen Etruskern, Griechen und Venetern im 6. und 5. Jh. v. Chr.

La comunicazione - che sarà tenuta in tedesco o in inglese - esamina le relazioni commerciali fra Etruschi, Greci e Veneti tra VI e V secolo a.C.: l’area settentrionale del Delta del Po e il suo entroterra erano attraversati da una fitta rete fluviale, individuata grazie a ricerche geoarcheologiche. I fiumi, prolungamento delle rotte adriatiche verso l’interno, avevano un regime costante ed erano navigabili in entrambe le direzioni: il Po di Adria passava lungo la frontiera fra Etruschi e Veneti, ma altri rami fluviali, più a nord, univano le loro acque a quelle dell'Adige, che lambiva Este, capoluogo del Veneto preromano. Gli insediamenti sorgono lungo la maglia fluviale, in posizione rilevata, su dossi o alture collinari prospicienti i fiumi e prediligono, data la natura del suolo, un’edilizia leggera.
La distribuzione degli indicatori commerciali conferma che i traffici avvenivano lungo la rete idrografica: nei siti del Polesine (es. Adria, San Cassiano, Balone), a forte presenza etrusca e con connotazione agraria, le anfore greche da trasporto marcano l’arrivo del vino. La ceramica attica seguiva il corso del Po (es. Forcello) e dell’Adige, una delle porte verso l’Europa centrale, spingendosi, insieme alla ceramica etrusco-padana, nei centri veneti e oltre. Il fenomeno di ritorno di questi scambi è l’arrivo nel Delta, lungo l’idrovia Adige-Tartaro, di un pregiato materiale lapideo, la trachite dei Colli Euganei, impiegata a San Cassiano nelle fondazioni degli edifici.

4.

Varvara Papadopoulou - Vassilios Kapopoulos - Nektarios-Petros Yioutsos, River Arachthos: Shaping the economic landscape of Ambracia, a Corinthian colony in the Ionian coast

5.

Christoph Rummel (Freie Universität Berlin), Taming Nature – Riverine Connectivity in the Middle Danube Region

Until the completion of major Roman infrastructure works in the late 1st century AD, the middle Danube in what is now known as the Iron Gates or Djerdap, was not navigable from West to East (or vice versa). This is largely reflected in cultural and material culture distributions that are frequently divided into Eastern and Western Balkan groups. Various types of archaeological evidence reflect the extent to which the changes to the Danube river in the Djerdap/Iron Gates during the late 1st century AD directly affected the economy and society of the entire middle Danube Region. This paper identifies how the Danube as a key lifeline of Europe - as we see it today - did not come into being as such until the Roman period, and how its role as a transport route shaped the entire northern part of the Balkan peninsula for centuries.

6.

Paul Pasieka (Freie Universität Berlin), Südetrurien und seine Flüsse – Beobachtungen zur wirtschaftlichen und infrastrukturellen Erschließung in der römischen Kaiserzeit

Südetrurien gehört zu den wirtschaftsarchäologisch am besten untersuchten Regionen des Römischen Reiches. Nur selten wurden jedoch die Untersuchungen einzelner Siedlungskammern oder Mikroregionen vergleichend miteinander in einer Langzeitperspektive in Bezug gesetzt, um zu einem besseren Verständnis des Wechselspiels von Wirtschaft und naturräumlichen Grundlagen in diesem Gebiet zu gelangen. Der vorgeschlagene Beitrag will dazu beitragen, diese Lücke zu schließen.
Aus wirtschaftsgeographischer Sicht zerfällt Südetrurien in zwei Großbereiche, die v.a. durch ihre unterschiedlichen fluvialen Systeme charakterisiert sind: Ein Küstenabschnitt mit einer Reihe kleinerer und mittlerer Flüsse wie Bruna, Ombrone, Marta oder Osa, die alle zum Meer entwässern und ein ausgedehntes, östliches Hinterland mit dem Tiber und seinem System weitverzweigter Zubringer, der vor dem Meer erst die Metropole Rom durchfließt. Diese beiden Flusssysteme werden hier als unterschiedliche Wirtschafts- und Kommunikationsräume aufgefasst, deren ökonomische und infrastrukturelle Entwicklung vergleichend vom 1. Jh. v. bis zum 3. Jh. n. Chr. betrachtet werden. Im Mittelpunkt steht die infrastrukturelle Erschließung – u. a. Häfen, Anlegestellen, Lagerhäusern – aus archäologischer Perspektive und die Frage, wie die Verkehrswege und ökonomischen Mikroregionen durch diese Erschließung zu größeren wirtschaftlichen Kommunikationsräumen zusammengeschlossen und ökonomische Hierarchieebenen miteinander verbunden werden.

7.

Alessandro Sebastiani (University at Buffalo, SUNY), The river Ombrone Valley: connecting economies during the Roman period

The aim of this paper is to describe the multi-scalar economical connections that happened along the river Ombrone valley (south Tuscany, Italy) during the Roman period.
As the Roman Mediterranean was a large globalized market area, ruled and connected through a series of human infrastructures that facilitated the exchange of goods and the mobility of people, this paper wants to analyze this elaborate network of economic hubs, such as cabotage ports and harbors, manufacturing district, villas, vici, farms and public facilities in the specific area of south Etruria. Drawing from the results of two different research projects (the Alberese Archaeological Project and the Impero Project), the paper will analyze the tight relationship between Roman economy and riverine connectivity, detailing the subsequent distribution of economic land-markers and infrastructures in terms of mobility of goods and people along the flow of the river, with the latter playing a crucial role in the understanding of the agency of interconnected landscapes, providing the trait d'union between the micro-scale level of economical distribution (south Etruria) and the macro-global market (the Mediterranean).

8.

Anca Dan (CNRS, Ecole Normale Supérieure), Milesian Landscape Transfer: the salted fish, from Egypt to the Black Sea

The concept of “landscape transfer” answers new trends in the study of “transported landscape” (the biota accompanying human populations in their migrations, cf. Anderson 1952) and “cultural transfers” (the passage of a cultural object from a context to another, giving place to new meanings, cf. Espagne-Werner 1988). It aims at emphasizing the anthropic modification of a landscape, by the habits of a new population.
Because of ”landscape transfers”, Greek – and especially Milesian – colonization had a significant impact on the Internal Sea, which still needs to be studied. From Antiquity until today, the Black Sea has the exceptional reputation of a sea very rich in fishes; however, before the 7th century BC, we have almost no traces of indigenous “eaters of fish” on its shores. The logical conclusion is that the Ionians (maybe more than the Megarians) became quickly aware of this potential and also that they brought with them the technology necessary for taking advantage of this resource as tarichos. Egypt (with Naucratis) could have been the place from where they learned and exported fish-salting and drying technology to the north.
The paper offers a brief description of the sea and river-mouth fishing before and after the Milesian colonization and stresses the environmental impact of the exploitation of salt marshes and salting basins at Black Sea river mouths.

Panel 2.3
(double)

Coastal geoarchaeology in the Mediterranean – on the interdependence of landscape dynamics, harbour installations and economic prosperity in the littoral realm

Day and Time:

Friday | 25 May | 09:00-13:30

Organisers:

Max Engel and Friederike Stock
(Universität Köln)

Speakers:

Panel abstract

Mediterranean coastlines are highly dynamic geomorphic landscapes with lateral progradation of up to tens of kilometres in alluvial delta regions during the last 5000 years. After the significant deceleration of post-glacial eustatic sea-level rise around 7000-6000 years ago, a complex interplay of regional and local factors such as vertical tectonic movements, glacial isostatic rebound, sediment supply by rivers and coastal currents, deltaic compaction, and human intervention, led to locally different histories of coastal formation. As the coastal zone provided essential access to food, maritime commerce and colonisation activities, its dynamical nature had a significant impact on the prosperity of ancient communities. In fact, Mediterranean harbours as the gateways to the maritime realm were constantly threatened by gradual sedimentation, tectonic uplift or subsidence, as well as extreme events such as earthquakes or tsunamis. Many harbours became landlocked due to coastal progradation with fundamental repercussions on the political and economic status of ancient poleis.

We invite any contributions studying the influence of the dynamic, physical coastal environment on human communities during Antiquity, may this influence be through gradual, long-term sedimentary or geomorphic processes, or episodic such as through earthquakes or tsunamis. We also invite contributions on any type of ancient human influence on the physical coastal environment including but not limited to the implementation of engineering measures or chemical or sedimentary imprints. All types of contributions are envisaged, including excavation- and field-based case studies, those comprising numerical models, synthesising reviews or advances in scientific methodology and techniques.

Paper abstracts

1.

Matthieu Giaime (Aix-Marseille Université CEREGE) - Christophe Morhange (Aix-Marseille Université CEREGE) - Nick Marrine (CNRS) - Michal Artzy (University of Haifa), Geoarchaeology reveals Coastline and River Changes and their Effects on Tel Akko’s Ancient Anchorages

Since the first archaeological excavations undertaken in the 1970’s/1980's, Tel Akko is known to have been an important trade city from the early 2nd millennium BC onwards. Even if the site has been intensively excavated, no palaeoenvironmental studies looking to understand coastal changes near the tell since the Bronze Age had been undertaken until recently. Our research is based on the study of sedimentological cores drilled at the foot of the tell and in the Old City of Akko, 1500 m west of the tell. We validate the coastal changes, already proposed by previous studies, while clarifying the chronology of these changes. We propose that he southern anchorage was located in the river-dominated mouth of the Na’aman until the early Persian Period. This anchorage shifted to the “open” western coast of the tell during the Persian Period before its subsequent relocation to the rocky promontory of Akko in Hellenistic times. We attempted to locate the Hellenistic harbour of Akko by coring in the Old City, in proximity to the modern harbour. At that time, one harbour was in a semi-protected pocket beach at the foot of the promontory.

2.

Andreas Vött (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz) - Franziska Lang (Technische Universität Darmstadt) - Lea Obrocki (Austrian Academy of Sciences) - Hans-Joachim Gehrke (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg), Major floods in the littoral realm of Elis and their potential influence on the cult site of Olympia (Peloponnese, Greece)

The cult site of Olympia is located 21 km inland from the Gulf of Kyparissia (Peloponnese, Greece). Since 2015, we have carried out an interdisciplinary landscape archaeological project together with the German Archaeological Institute.
Geoarchaeological studies, comprising geophysical prospection and vibracoring, revealed strong stratigraphical consistencies between sedimentary records at Olympia, in the Kladeos and Alpheios River valleys and in coastal plains near Pyrgos. Also, we found evidence of crust uplift of minimum 13-20 m during the past 6000 or so years. Our data allow detecting several catastrophic floods, partly as tsunamis from the seaside, since the mid-Holocene. In contrast, thick freshwater lake deposits indicate stable ecological conditions over centuries.
Settlement activities and economic structures were studied by an archaeological survey. Considering the influence of environmental changes on economics and man-environment interactions, the research dilemma is as follows: Archaeological and historical analyses are usually based on the present landscape, but archaeological findings, associated to past landscapes, are mostly used for interpretation. In the Olympia project, results from geoarchaeological studies are regarded as integral part of archaeological analyses and allow shedding new light on the interdependencies between economic and natural factors in a diachronic perspective, i.e. based on different palaeolandscapes and their changing connectivity.

3.

Lukasz Miszk (Jagiellonian University in Kraków) - Tomasz Kalicki and Sławomir Chwałek (Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach), Ewdoksia Papuci-Władyka (Jagiellonian University in Kraków) - Weronika Winiarska, Engulfed past – Nea Paphos (Cyprus) north-west bay as an example of interdependence between human and environment

The changes of Anthropogenic environmental brought on a complete disappearance of natural vegetation and led to transformation of an erosion-accumulation cycle in the river’s valley which triggered to changes of shoreline near Nea Paphos (Cyprus).
In our paper, we would like to present an attempt to reconstruct the processes which influenced the formation of the coastline of the peninsula where the ancient city of Nea Paphos was located. Those processes could have had an anthropogenic origin (e.g. deforestation), but also could have depended on natural factors (e.g. accumulation of sediments). Such reconstruction is an extremely complex task in ancient history, and at the same time it is crucial to understand the economics of ancient port cities such as Nea Paphos. This research task must be carried out on the basis of interdisciplinary studies, with the primary role of geoarcheology.
In our work the results of geoarcheological studies (drilling, analysis and dating of thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence alluvia) carried out in the north-west bay of Paphos and adjacent areas of the nearby rivers, supported by analysis of archival sources (historical maps, travel memoirs, etc.) and remote sensing data (Numerical Terrain Model, archival images, etc.) will be presented. The results of our studies allowed to verify a hypothesis on the possible existence of a second harbour in the Hellenistic and Roman capital of Cyprus.

4.

Alba Mazza (The University of Sydney), The coastal landscape of a Western Greek city. The case of Selinus

Through an interdisciplinary approach this paper presents the results of the investigation of the coastal landscape of one of the most famous Western Greek cities: Selinus, Sicily-Italy. New sources, including unpublished archaeological evidence, ancient and modern literature, historical cartography, and geological and sedimentological data from geoarchaeological investigation have been analysed.
New elements of the palaeolandscape have been discovered, for example, a suspect submerged palaeoshoreline has been detected, whose shape might suggest a much more longer acropolis. Moreover, evidence of a pre-Greek coastal palaeolagoon environment and recurrent flooding dated to the Archaic and Classical period have enabled a better understanding of environmental engineering and landscape managing skills the Greeks adopted in order to cope with the challenging of living in a coastal environment. Harbour sedimentation provoked by long-term sedimentary process can be suggested. Evidence of past extreme events (earthquakes and possbile tsunamis) shed light on the geohazards of living on Selinus.
As a result of this study, already known archaeological contexts, such as sanctuaries and fortifications, can be now framed more cogently, and harbor infrastructures are now better understood. Therefore, it is now possible to have a more solid foundation for understading the role of the shore in the lives of the Selinuntinians and the human-coastal environment interactions.

5.

Felix Teichner (Philipps-Universität Marburg) - Klaus Reicherter - Helmut Brückner - Florian Hermann - Kevin Paul, The Impact of Coastal Changes on the maritime economy of Roman Hispania

Besides mining and farming, the maritime economy with its distinctive fish sauce production (garum) should be acknowledged amongst the pillars of the proverbial flourishing of the Roman Hispanic provinces. The focus of this interdisciplinary research project financed by the DFG since 2017 is particularly the vulnerability of this fish-processing industry, as well as its complex production networks, when confronted with short and long-term natural phenomena occurring at the highly dynamic Atlantic coast. The multidisciplinary project analyses selectively archaeological and geological records (production facilities and sediment archives) in three areas along the Atlantic coast of Lusitania and Baetica, in order to detect the reasons for drastic changes in fish-sauce production during the Roman Empire. Within the framework of the project, roman port and production installations are prospected with geofisical methods and excavated. At the same time, the former geomorphological and environmental setting is reconstructed. Furthermore, the attested local extreme events are traced with geoarchaeological methods and cross-checked with historical accounts about natural catastrophes and their long-range impacts on the roman sea-side settlements.

6.

Reinhard Stupperich (Universität Heidelberg) - Corinna Hoff, Economy and the Persian Wars - the Case of Troizen

Before the battle at Salamis in 480/79 BC some Athenians evacuated their families and household members to Salamis and Aigina, but most of them send theirs to Troizen, where part of the hellenic navy had already assembled (Hdt. VIII 41f. Paus. II 31, 7). As six triremes and 1.000 hoplites from Troizen are said to have taken part in the battles of Artemision, of Salamis and of Plataiai respectively (Hdt. VII 180; VIII 43; IX 28), Troizen must have had about 10.000 residents. Together with the Athenian refugees a multiple of these residents must have stayed at Troizen before the battle of Salamis. The provisions needed for the survival of these persons indicate, that it was at least in part its economic prosperity, which made Troizen especially attractive as a refuge, and which lasted as numerous sanctuaries and costly tombs imply at least until the early byzantine period. On the basis of the results of an interdisciplinary survey focusing not only on the archaeological remains of Troizen but also on the climatic, geological and pedological conditions prevailing in the area the basis for Troizen’s economy and its attractiveness as a refuge shall be investigated in this paper.

7.

Sabine Ladstätter (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften) - Walter Prochaska - Roman Sauer, Der Kaiser hatte doch recht! | Neue Erkenntnisse zur Verschmutzung des Hafens von Ephesos mit Marmorabrasiv

Aus Ephesos ist ein Dekret (IvE) des unter Kaiser Antoninus Pius eingesetzten Statthalters der Provinz Asia, Lucius Antonius Albus, überliefert, in dem das Ableiten von Marmormehl sowie Schmirgel in den Hafen verboten wurde, mit dem Ziel der Verschlammung des Beckens Einhalt zu gebieten. In der archäologischen Forschung stand man der Bedeutung dieses anthropogenen Eintrags lange Zeit skeptisch gegenüber und brachte vielmehr den natürlichen Sedimentationsprozess mit den permanent notwendigen Wartungsarbeiten in Verbindung. Die Auswertung der Schwermineralien in Sedimenten aus Bohrkernen, die im Hafenbecken von Ephesos gezogen wurden, zeigen nun allerdings eine extrem hohe Kontamination mit Korund, dem üblichen Schleifmittel bei der Marmorverarbeitung und scheinen dadurch das Verbot des Kaisers rechtzufertigen.
Unter diesem Aspekt scheint es notwendig, einerseits das Baumaterial Marmor unter dem Aspekt lokaler Vorkommen im Verhältnis zu Importen zu diskutieren, andererseits die Frage zu stellen, welche Verarbeitungsschritte an Ort und Stelle im Zuge der großen Bauprogramme der 1. Hälfe des 2. Jahrhunderts erfolgten, wie der Abfallprozess von statten ging und mit und mit welchen Abfallvolumina eigentlich zu rechnen ist. Darüber hinaus werden die petrographischen Ergebnisse aus dem Hafenbecken mit jenen aus natürlichen Milieus im Umland von Ephesos verglichen und zudem die Vorkommen und der Abbau von Korund in der Region analysiert.

8.

Camilla Colombi (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut), Ein Hafen am Prile-See? Neue Erkenntnisse zur Ausdehnung der Bucht bei Castiglione della Pescaia

Die Küsten der Toskana waren in der Antike durch zahlreichen Buchten und Lagunen gekennzeichnet. Eine der größten, der Prile-See, erstreckte sich am Anfang des 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. über weite Teile der heutigen Ebene von Grosseto und war direkt mit dem Meer verbunden. Im Laufe der Jahrhunderte versandete dieser allmählich ein, sodass bereits in römischer Zeit die Verbindung zum Meer künstlich aufrechterhalten werden musste.
Die Änderungen in der Ausdehnung der Bucht wurden schon mehrfach untersucht. Weniger Beachtung hat dagegen die Frage nach der Lage der Anlegestellen gefunden, die mit den beiden etruskischen Zentren Vetulonia und Roselle in Verbindung zu bringen sind. Insbesondere im Falle von Vetulonia ist diese Frage von hohem Interesse, da der Wohlstand der Stadt maßgeblich auf dem Handel mit Rohstoffen basierte, der wohl über einen oder mehrere Häfen am Prile-See abgewickelt wurde.
Um einen Beitrag zur Lokalisierung der Anlegestellen zu leisten, wurden 2016 und 2017 geophysikalische Prospektionen südöstlich des Vetulonia-Hügels unternommen, die in 2018 durch Bohrungen ergänzt werden sollen. Die identifizierten Strukturen sind auf Grund der verkehrsgünstigen Lage, ihrer Ausdehnung und Charakteristika als mögliche Hafenanlage zu deuten. Ihre Auffindung wirft wiederum neue Fragen hinsichtlich der Ausdehnung der Bucht und der Auswirkungen der Versandung der Anlegestellen auf die Entwicklung der Stadt auf.

Panel 2.4

The Riverlands of Aegean Thrace: Production, Consumption and Exploitation of the Natural and Cultural Landscapes

Day and Time:

Wednesday | 23 May | 17:00-19:00

Organiser:

Eurydice Kefalidou (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)

Speaker:

  1. Merkourios Georgiadis (University of Nottingham) - Eurydice Kefalidou (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)
    Archaic and Classical Abdera: Economy and Wealth by the Nestos Riverside
  2. Domna Terzopoulou (Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki)
    The Classical City on the Molyvoti Peninsula (Aegean Thrace): Landscape, Urban Development, and Economic Networks
  3. Chryssa Karadima (Hellenic Ministry of Culture & Sports. Ephorate of Antiquities of Rhodope)
    Doriskos. "Aἰγιαλός καì πεδίον μέγα". A Harbour on the West Side of the Hebros River
  4. Thomas Schmidts (Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum)
    Ainos - a hub between sea and inland
  5. Despoina Tsiafaki ("Athena" Research Center)
    Exploring rivers and ancient settlements in Aegean Thrace through spatial technology

Panel abstract

Rivers were (and still are) a rather defining feature of the geography of Aegean Thrace, both the large ones like the Hebros, the Lissos and the Nestos and the smaller ones like the Kosynthos, the Kompsatos and the Travos. All of them run, more or less, from North to South, i.e. from the Rhodope mountain range via the fertile coastal Thracian plain to the Aegean Sea or (the smaller ones) to lake Bistonis. Their routes, deltas, marshlands, wetlands, dunes and lagoons form a rather complex natural environment which influenced all aspects of life in antiquity, in both positive and negative ways.

For the most part these rivers were vital supports for people and economies. They provided water for people and animals, irrigated the land, facilitated trade and commerce through small vessels that navigated the larger rivers, aided industrial activities, formed a rich area for fishermen and hunters, and offered raw materials such as sand and gravel. At the same time, their deltas and marshlands, especially in periods of flood, created an unhospitable environment, often unsuitable for habitation, causing illnesses like malaria that affected the local population in a variety of ways. Furthermore, these rivers connected the sea and the littoral zone with the hinterland, and thus they allowed the interaction between the Greek colonies on the Aegean coast with the local Thracian tribes, which inhabited the inland part of this region.

Recent research in Aegean Thrace includes two systematic surveys in the deltas of the Nestos and the Lissos, a rescue excavation in the city of Doriskos near Hebros, a project on the harbour city of Ainos on the Hebros delta and a project utilizing spatial technology along river courses. They all adopt a variety of approaches and methodologies: collecting and studying archaeological material, utilizing satellite images, conducting geophysical surveys, employing geoarchaeology and geoinformatics, etc. All projects aim at defining the character of various ancient riverside sites, integrating them into their broader landscape and understanding aspects of exploitation, production, consumption, communication and trade.

Some of the topics that will be addressed are: (a) The reconfiguration of ancient river routes and the settlement patterns that were formed around them; (b) The boundaries of the chora of various cities, towns, villages farmsteads, etc.; (c) The various uses of land and the means of exploitation through time; (d) The density of population in various landscape settings and the movements of (or tensions between) different groups that moved or expanded beyond their original habitation zone due to environmental and economic reasons.

Paper abstracts

1.

Constantina Kallintzi (Ephorate of Antiquities of Xanthi) - Merkourios Georgiadis (University of Nottingham) - Eurydice Kefalidou (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens) - Kyriaki Chatziprokopiou (Ephorate of Antiquities of Xanthi), Archaic and Classical Abdera: Economy and Wealth by the Nestos Riverside

The Ionic colony of Abdera was founded in the mid-7th century BC by the Nestos riverside on a hill peninsula that provided a good anchorage. The landscape has been dominated by river Nestos and its courses and marshlands that divided the land and connected it with the Thracian mountainous hinterland. The river provided a fertile land for cultivations and at the same time it caused several destructive alluviation episodes, while its marshes affected the Greek colonists by inflicting them with malaria. Despite those drawbacks the colonists persisted on this location due to its strategic and landscape advantages. Another colonisation episode in the mid-6th century BC brought new economic exploitation conditions. The chora was expanded and coins were struck. Large pithoi and transport amphoras demonstrated that trade was conducted across the northern and eastern Aegean. Stone quarrying and metalworking were important economic activities; iron and bronze had been coming from the inland areas controlled by the Thracian tribes possibly through the river route. The domestic economy included the processing of grain and textile production. The appearance of farmsteads in the Classical period reveals a new economic model of exploring the landscape. The same applies for the cemeteries from the late Archaic period onwards, that expanded in space and provided a new way of promoting personal and family wealth and status within the Greek polis.

2.

Nathan Arrington and Domna Terzopoulou (Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki) - Marina Tasaklaki (Ephorate of Antiquitis of Rhodope) - Thomas Tartaron (University of Pennsylvania) - Eli Weaverdyck (University of Freiburg), The Classical City on the Molyvoti Peninsula (Aegean Thrace): Landscape, Urban Development, and Economic Networks

The Molyvoti, Thrace Archaeological Project (MTAP) investigates the walled settlement situated on the Molyvoti Peninsula , which was occupied most intensively in the Classical period. The river Philiouri, identified as the ancient river Lissos, runs between Molyvoti and Maroneia. In the past the city in Molyvoti Peninsula was identified as Ancient Stryme, a colony of Thasos, described by ancient sources as both a polis and an emporion. The first phase of MTAP established the dimensions of the city and its grid plan, identified harbors, and tracked how the coastline and the course of the river have changed. It provided a new chronology of the site, with evidence for activity down into the early 3rd cen. BC and again in the Late Roman period. The surface survey has provided data on the differential use of space within the city walls and it has also demonstrated the changing relationship between the city and its chora. It is now evident that the settlement was oriented predominantly towards trade within a regional network. But there are indications that the city was more widely interconnected .This observation should be correlated with the shifting dynamics across the region, including developments in inland Thrace. Archaeological data from the city of Molyvoti and from a settlement located in the foothills of Rhodope mountains, suggest a type of connectivity with the Thracian hinterland similar to the one testified by the Pistiros inscription.

3.

Chryssa Karadima (Hellenic Ministry of Culture & Sports. Ephorate of Antiquities of Rhodope), Doriskos. "Aἰγιαλός καì πεδίον μέγα". A Harbour on the West Side of the Hebros River

Doriskos is reported by the ancient writer Skylax as a “defensive wall” (teichos) and by Herodotus as a “seashore” and “the great plain” of Thrace, but also as an important fortified post (royal wall) of the Persians, where a permanent garrison was installed following Darius I’s campaign against the Scythians in 514 BC. In 480 BC, it served as a place of inspection and deployment for Xerxes’ troops. It also had great strategic importance, being located on the overland corridor that connects Asia with Europe and the Aegean coast with the Thracian interior through the Hebros River, wich was navigable.
The Ephorate of Antiquities of Rhodope, in conjunction with the Geophysics Division of the Department of Geology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with Prof. Gr. Tsokas, has carried out two consecutive seasons of geophysical survey (2005-2006) on the site of Doriskos. These surveys have provided clear indications for the existence of ancient residential remains. Two excavation campaigns in 2007 and 2010 revealed part of the fortification wall and urban landscape of the Hellenistic city confirming the results of the geophysical surveys. The archaeological evidence provides the image of a small fortified settlement, whose inhabitants made their living through cereal cultivation, textile production, fishing and trade.

4.

Thomas Schmidts (Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum), Ainos - a hub between sea and inland

Due to a siltation process Ainos, today Enez (TR), is now four kilometres distant from the sea. The banks of the river Hebros (modern Evros or Meriç) mark the area north of the city which had been a bay of the North Aegean Sea next to the mouth of the river in the past. So, Ainos became a hub between the Sea and the inland of Thrace. Byzantine sources convey that lager vessels could go up to Hadrianopolis (Edirne) and smaller ones even up to Philippopolis (Plovdiv). This is a remarkable distance for a river that ends in the Aegean Sea. If we presume similar conditions for antiquity Ainos was predestined for the role of as a hub. The city was founded as a Greek colony. Its importance in Archaic and classical times is obvious and can be proved by written sources as well as by archaeological evidence; also the Late Roman and Byzantine periods seem to be periods of wealth. In contrast, the Hellenistic and Roman Imperial eras were considered as times of decline.
The paper intends to show the development of ancient Ainos as a harbour city based on the results of a research project, financed by the German Research Foundation, which investigates the topography and environment of the ancient and Byzantine harbour city. The role of Ainos as a hub from the Archaic to Late Roman times will be discussed.

5.

Despoina Tsiafaki - Vasilis Evangelidis ("Athena" Research Center), Exploring rivers and ancient settlements in Aegean Thrace through spatial technology

Settlements are not developed through an empty and neutral space but, similarly to other human built features, were influenced by environmental and cultural variables. Natural geography and ecological factors shaped the dynamics of human settlement. Especially in the Aegean Thrace the presence of rivers seems to have played a determinant role in the habitation patterns and the development of settlements in an area where different cultural contexts coexisted. Although relatively small for navigation, the valleys of these rivers were important corridors of communication, invasion and trade between the coastal Aegean zone and the interior of the Balkans. In a region where mountains are omnipresent, arable land is mostly restricted along these river valleys or in small alluvial coastal plains. Aim of the paper is to track through spatial technology the long-term shifts in settlement patterns along the course of the rivers (Nestos, Hebros) that cross the coastal Thrace. Therefore we address a number of issues
1. How and when did settlement change along the drainage?
2. How does that relate to changes in water and land management?
3. Why did these changes occur or what is the cultural context behind these changes?
GeoSpatial technology (open access GIS) in combination with geological and hydrological evidence will be used as a tool to allow us to contextualise the relationship between site and environment and detect changes in settlement patterns over an extended period of time.

Panel 2.5

Halos, a city state on the edge?

Day and Time:

Saturday | 26 May | 14:30-16:30

Organiser:

Vladimir Stissi (University of Amsterdam)

Panel abstract

Ancient Halos, in the south of Thessaly, Greece, was a small polis at a strategic position in a coastal landscape that looks fertile now, but may have been difficult to manage in antiquity. More than a century of archaeological research in the Halos territory and its direct surroundings by Greek, Dutch, British and Canadian teams has produced a dataset of exceptional variety and quality. Much of the area has been surveyed, many sites (including two urban centers) have been excavated, and there are detailed studies of faunal remains, geomorphology and human remains (including DNA and isotope analyses). Together these offer a unique possibility to study the subsistence of a 'city state' in exceptional depth. This is all the more interesting because Halos was not a regular polis. It only had a substantial (50 ha) urban settlement for less than forty years, and may have had no proper urban center for much of its existence – the likely site of the main central place was less than 10 ha at its largest, but that may not have lasted long; it was also uninhabited during some periods. Yet, the area hosts one of the largest known cemetery areas of Early Iron Age Greece, which contains thousands of graves over an area of several square kilometers, but dwindles in the 6th century BCE. 250 years later, the just mentioned large Hellenistic city seems to come out of the blue. The archaeological finds, moreover, suggest strong variations in wealth and food patterns over time. Clearly the demographic, social and economic foundations of this polis were unstable – which was surely not unusual, but is rarely as visible as here. At least part of this precarious situation may be related to the landscape, which was partly very marshy or subject to flash floods and episodes of heavy erosion and soil deposition, and may not have been very fit for agriculture in many areas. Archaeology and isotopes suggest periods of immigration, whereas historical sources indicate Halos was the victim of major moments of warfare, which lead to the destruction and depopulation of the city at least once. Finally the area is regularly hit by earthquakes, the devastating results of which are clearly visible in the archaeological record. In this panel we want to explore the subsistence of Halos from various angles as an exemplary case, to get a better grip on the ways a community in a difficult environment managed to survive and sometimes thrive over almost a millennium.

Paper abstracts

1.

Vasso Rondiri - Dimitrios Agnousiotis - Despina Efstathiou - Ioanna Mamaloudi - Evagelia Stamelou (Ephorate of Antiquities), Reconsidering archaeological landscapes in the broader area of ancient Halos

Landscape always played an important role in archaeological thought and research. Through the anthropology and geography of the 19th and 20th centuries, the concept of landscape was often redefined, along with the perceptions and the philosophical currents of the time. In archaeological research, space as a variable has always participated in the formation of culture, at the same time as it was itself formed.
In recent archaeological practice landscape and material culture acquire meanings according to historical conditions, and associated with memories and senses of individuals. At the same time, acts and their actors are involved in the landscape, gaining experiences that can contribute to its interpretation.
Today, the archaeological landscape is redefined historically, socially and ideologically, from something static to something fluid and dynamic, open to various interpretative perspectives.
The area of Almyros, as an archaeological landscape, has been at the forefront of archaeological research since the early 20th century. Greek and foreign scientists have always been interested in the antiquities of the area. The present paper looks forward to examining the archaeological research of the region over time, from Prehistory to the Roman Conquest, focusing on the different levels of landscape influence in the formation of the archaeological scene and vice versa. As examples, data from three major research areas are analyzed: Halos, Voulokaliva and Magoula Plataniotiki.

2.

Vladimir Stissi (University of Amsterdam), Halos pottery in its landscape: a diachronic ceramic perspective

The many years of fieldwork done at Halos have produced an enormous amount of ceramics, from a wide range of contexts, covering all periods from Neolithic to the present. It would be a waste not to use this in a session focusing on the impact of landscape on the economy.

However, traditionally, mainly pottery imports are used to explore trade connections and to assess wealth, literally leaving out the local landscape. While there is nothing wrong with this in itself, overly simplistic and positivistic conclusions are all too easily drawn. Moreover, such approaches often focus on a single period, and a small selection of pottery, and they rarely take into account environmental factors. In the case of Halos, finally, the pottery assemblage hardly includes imports, even during periods when it cannot be characterized at poor. Traditional approaches would barely work.

This seems the ideal context for a different approach of pottery in connection to the economy: diachronic, focusing on local production and consumption, and set within its landscape and social context. Can we see a ‘longue durée’ in Halos pottery? And are there perhaps significant interruptions which we can relate to changes in the economic and political setup of the area? And can local pottery perhaps be set in a much wider setting after all? Previous case studies seem to indicate we can do all this. By bringing these and new explorations together, we hope to be able to offer a more comprehensive picture.

3.

Sofia Voutsaki - Reinder Reinders - Arnoud Maurer - Rene Cappers - Wieke de Neef - Canan Cakirlar (University of Groningen), A landscape approach to Halos: new questions, methods and challenges

The pioneering geological, geomorphological and palynological explorations undertaken by the University of Groningen in Halos in the 1970’s offered invaluable insights into the interplay between environmental, geopolitical and social processes in the Halos area.
In the new Halos 5-year project we intend to provide more accurate data about land capacity which will enable us to raise new questions about labour mobilization and the sustainability of the Halos community.
We propose to combine novel geophysical and geomorphological methodologies (magnetometry, GPR, electromagnetic induction, electrical imaging along transects, corings) in order to reconstruct roads, natural anchorages and harbours, to map changing hydrographical circumstances, and to understand the formation of the coastal plain. We plan to take new pollen samples in order to reconstruct diachronic developments and anthropogenic influences on the natural vegetation. We will perform macrobotanical analyses of the old corings in order to carry out radiocarbon and isotopic analyses, but also study any shells, or molluscs indicative of marine or lagoonal environments. These analyses will be complemented with the study of faunal and plant remains from the excavations in Magoula Plataniotiki.
We expect that this integrated approach will have methodological relevance beyond Halos and make an important contribution to the debates surrounding the political economy of the ancient world.

4.

Margriet Haagsma (University of Alberta), The Unsustainable City: domestic economies, environment, and the maintenance of the urban landscape in Hellenistic Halos

Taking the concept of the urban-rural continuum as a point of departure, this paper will focus on the relationship between the maintenance and development of New Halos, a newly planned Hellenistic city on the Pagasitic Gulf in Greece, and the viability of the domestic economies of its inhabitants.
New Halos was founded ca. 302 BCE and abandoned around 265 BCE, likely after an earthquake. Strategically located further inland than its Classical predecessor, the habitation area of Hellenistic city covers 46 hectares and is protected by state-of-the-art defensive structures which contrast starkly with the modest houses. Analysis of domestic artefact and ecofact assemblages and environmental studies done in the area point to a surrounding countryside that was not intensively cultivated during the period of the existence of the Hellenistic city. The inhabitants of this urban centre could not support themselves by the agricultural yields of the countryside alone and the city must have been dependent on the import of grain from elsewhere. The city’s marginal location, the limited capacity of the land, and the role of Hellenistic rulers who kept the city under tight economic control had a negative impact on the ability of individual households to renovate and sustain their urban environment.
The complex interaction between historical, social, environmental and economic factors thus played into the inhabitants’ decision to abandon this urban centre after only 35 years of habitation.

5.

Eleni Panagiotopoulou (University of Groningen) - Hillary Sparkes (University of Alberta), Diet reconstruction in Early Iron Age and Hellenistic Halos

This paper investigates dietary variation observed in populations inhabiting the area associated with the Hellenistic city of Halos in Thessaly, Greece. This is a unique opportunity to compare the diet and study dietary change from the Early Iron Age (EIA, 1100-900 BC) to the Hellenistic period (323-31 BC). Diet is reconstructed by means of stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope analysis of human and animal bone collagen as well as enamel carbonate. The main pattern that is observed is that the diet was largely based on C3 plant and animal resources with evident absence of large marine fish despite the fact that this is a coastal location. However, there is observed variation between the two periods. In the EIA the diet was complemented by C4 resources while animal protein was higher and marine resources were totally absent. On the other hand, in the Hellenistic period, reliance on animal protein varied, some individuals depended heavily on C3 grains and olive oil, while marine resources in small amounts were present. Further interpretation of the isotopic results based on social differentiation patterns revealed dietary variation observed between age, sex, and status groups.

Panel 2.6

The Economic Structure of Eastern Anatolian Highland from Urartian Period to the End of Late Antiquity

Day and Time:

Saturday | 26 May | 14:30-16:30

Organiser:

Mehmet Isikli (Atatürk University)

Panel abstract

The Eastern Anatolian Highland was one of the prominent sub-region of Ancient Near East by the reason of its specific location. This region which has formidable geographical features and harsh climatical conditions is placed among Northern Mesopotamia, Southern Caucasus, Northwestern Iran and Central Anatolia which were principal cultural regions of Near East. The region has been played effective role in the network economic and cultural relationships of southern-northern direction through the ages. At the same time the region is extremly rich in terms of the natural resources and raw materials. Despite the negative geographical and climatical conditions the region has been hosted many cultures and societies through the ages by reason of the location and richness. The archaeological evidence show that the centralization and state formation time of the region was Urartu and following process. As known Urartian State is the first known central political organisation in Eastern Anatolia and its surrounding regions. At the same time the societies living in highlands become acquainted with literary tradition first time. As from this process the economic and political structures in the mountainous zone of the Near East can be observed easier. From this point of view in this session the economic structures of this marginal zone of Ancient Near East from Urartian period to end of the late antiquity will be analysed.

Paper abstracts

1.

Mehmet Işıklı - Mehmet Ali Özdemir (Atatürk University), The Observations on the Urartian Economy in the light of the excavations at Ayanis Castle

Urartian State is the first known central political organisation in the very highlands of Eastern Anatolia and the Trans-Caucasus. Accumulated around Lake Van Basin, Urartian Kingdom tried to control the territory between Van, Sevan and Urmia lakes, including fertile plains hidden into mountains, and large and wealthy pastures. For about three hundred years, the Urartian Kingdom struggled the harsh geographical conditions, as well as several rivals. While creating a new political system under these circumstances, a novel economic system was also being forged. Construction activities of the Urartians do not only include notable fortresses, but also embrace dams and canals, for the economy was purely based on agriculture, stock breeding and the booty, which varies from captives to sheep and some other commodities. Fortresses were substantial units in this economic system, by hosting public buildings such as temple, palace and storage facilities, and by acting as political and economic centres to inspect the production, store the surplus production and distribution them. Ayanis Fortress, being excavated since 1989, is one of well-known and striking examples of these fortified centres, presenting a paramount picture of the 7th century BC Urartian highlands. This paper focuses on the new evidence from Ayanis and tries to make an understanding of the Urartian economical system, with the help of the architecture, findings and written evidence.

2.

Leila Afshari, The Economic Conditions of Eastern Anatolian Highland (Armenia Satraphy) During The Achaemenid Period

The Achaemenid (Persian) Empire was the largest of all ancient Near Eastern "World empires", spanning from Egypt to central Asia and the Indus region. Its formation began after 550 B.C.E., when the petty king Cyrus of Anshan/Fars in southwestern Iran and his son Cambyses conquered the mighty Medes and the empires of Lydia, Babylonia and Egypt. For 200 years, from the second half to the sixth century to the decades before 330 BC, the Persian dynasty of the Achaemenids ruled Anatolia and Armenia as part of an enormous empire stretching from the Mediterranean Sea to Afghanistan and India. The satrapy of Armenia is one of the more remote satrapies of the empire, stretching west from Eastern Anatolia to the southern Caucasus mountains and south to lake Urmia. It is located quite a distance from the center of the empire in pars and creates the northernmost border of the empire in the southern Caucasus mountains. Armenia has several natural borders such as the black sea to its northwest and the great Caucasus range to the north, in the satrapy has a varied geography, containing mountains, plains, grasslands, semi-deserts, large lakes and several rivers and streams. The landscape is harsh and as a result the population was resilient. While the landscape was severe, it could also be plentiful: the numerous rivers and streams in the region left the landscape fertile, large lakes such as Lake Van provided fish, and the landscape was rich with raw materials, especially metals such as copper, silver and iron.

3.

Nusret Burak Özsoy - Elif Yavuz, The Economic and Political State of Eastern Anatolian during the Classical Period

Eastern Anatolia has been a territory that can be hardly controlled by all civilizations throughout history with challenging climatic conditions, mountainous and rugged region. Due to the geographical nature of the terrain, which exhibits a natural defense system, it has offered advantages and disadvantages to civilizations that want to dominate here. During the Hellenistic and Roman Period, the territory of strategic significance throughout history has maintained the same importance, especially as Rome has begun to deal with the Caucasus, the region has reached an important military and economic position. In this study, the developments experienced in these periods will be evaluated on geography and the economic conditions of the region will be presented.

4.

Oğuz Aras - Ahmet Cüneydi Has, The Eastern Anatolian in the Byzantine Period Economic Mobility

Eastern Anatolia Region where the terrestrial climate conditions prevail, it is a frequent point that guides both the east and the west trade. Climate and vegetation cover negatively affect the region, it has been able to survive economically every semester while keeping production at a constant level. The most important factor in this is the fact that the region acquires the function of a transit point for its strategic position.
This business dynamism that has been alive in the Byzantine Period has brought the region forward not only economically but also in many areas. In this perspective, the trade of Eastern Anatolia will be analyzed and by inspected from archaeological and geographical aspect. We will also try to provide detailed information about how effectively the region has succeeded in using Roman trade routes in this period.

Panel 2.7

River valleys and regional economies

Day and Time:

Wednesday | 23 May | 14:30-16:30

Discussant:

to be announced

Paper abstracts

1.

Annapaola Mosca (Università di Roma "La Sapienza"), An ancient landscape shaped by the river: the impact of the Adige at the base of the Alps. A new research perspective

The goal of this study is to analyze the impact of the upper section of the Adige North of Verona on the ancient landscape and the economy with a focus on the Roman age. The river, despite the fact that it could not be navigable at different times of the year, has been used since protohistorical era for the transport of goods from the port of Adria. Many data suggest that in Roman age the Adige could be more easily connected via a network of channels to other Adriatic ports. But so far it had never been proven how the Adige influenced the organization of the settlement and the productive landscape of the district. If we examine the distribution of Roman sites placed in the Adige Valley, it is clear that the presence of marshes and the danger of damage caused by floods forced the choice of conoids as settlement sites. Some settlement is necessarily rebuilt, due to its position closely connected with the river, in the same place as pre-Roman settlement, so we can assume there were berths along the river. Other Roman settlements were organized on the hillsides, where agriculture could be practiced. The production sites were placed near the streams entering the Adige. The water of these streams was used in productive activities and the Adige itself could contribute to the diffusion of the products. We know the circulation of tiles but also of other manifacturated goods and of stones. Definitely the river forced people to have a close relationship with water.

2.

Romel Ghrib (Department of Antiquities), Study of Ancient Economy around Zarqa River in Jordan

This study investigate the economy for the ancient world's in Zarqa river in middle of Jordan.
An archeological excavations and surveys determined that, people were hunters and food gatherers.
However, an upgrading of human settle pattern happened to be as agricultural villages as (Ein
Ghazal site). A revolution of tools and usage by copper discovery took place as in (Tulailat AlGhasoul
site), while water harvesting and defense fortification appeared clearly at (Al-Batrawi site).
Through bronze age, Jordan was divided into three kingdoms: Edoms, Moabs and Ammonites,
settlement continued through the Classical periods till Islamic. In Zarqa governorate an evidences
shows the existence of permanent settlements and complete cities included thousands of population
due to Zarqa river banks such as: Jabal Al-Qurma, Jabal al-Mutawwaq and Khirbet Al-Russaifa.
The result of this study a proof of documented settlement and flourishing economy in those sites
within mentioned period.

3.

Ilaria Serchia - Giulia Rebonato - Anna Rita Marchi (Soprintendenza Archeologia Belle Arti e Paesaggio per le province di Parma e Piacenza), The impact of the Parma creek floods on urban and economic development of Roman Parma in light of recent findings from "via del Conservatorio" archaeological excavations

The archaeological excavation of a large urban area of the Roman city of Parma (“via del Conservatorio” construction site), just a few meters from the omonymous creek, allowed the stratigraphic investigation of several alluvial events.
The proximity to the Parma creek influenced growth, development and involution of this area since the Iron Age. During Republican age, through the construction of the town walls and the putting in place of containment mixed systems, the creek was regimented and exploited for different craft activities. With the re-establishment of the colony, during the Augustan age, the area was completely rebuilt through the construction of at least two domus. At the same times, a complex hydraulic system was realized and connected to the creek through a series of exhaust ducts serving the domus. Throughout the imperial era, at least until the 3rd century AD, a series of alluvial events occurred that caused the partial flooding of the town, and considerable damage to structures and infrastructures that were nevertheless restored. Until the Late Antiquity, when the excavations document the evidence of a strong flood that led the creek to move toward the town and caused the consequent need of constructing new walls to bar the creek itself and which, de facto, came to shrink the urban perimeter. During the second half of the 12th century another strong flood caused a further displacement of the watercourse into the bed within which it still flows nowadays.

4.

Desirè Di Giuliomaria, Walking along the Ilissos River

The Ilissos valley has always been one of the most fascinating place in Athens, because of the several cults and myths that the ancient literature refers and archaeological data, most of the time, confirm. The present study started from two main questions: How did the areas around the Ilissos river change during the time and how much the abundance or scarcity of water influenced those changing processes. Considering a range of historical time (6th c. BC-8h c. AD), the Ilissos valley has been inhabited at least from Classical to Byzantine period. Therefore, it went through many changes of purposes: from one of most ancient cult place (Thuc. II 15, 3-6), to a residential area (Is. VIII 35) until when it became an operating centre of ceramic and metal production, supplying the entire city. Actually, an inscription reused in Plaka -and probably coming not so far from the Ilissos’ banks- testifies a leather workshop nearby the river around the second half of 5th c. BC (IG I3 257). Workshops along watercourses should exist since Classical period, as some evidences along the Eridanos river and into the Classical Agora prove. Thanks to the Eforia of Athens, I had the possibility to study the notebooks of the campaigns led by I. Threpsiadis and J. Travlos around 1960s: thus, I could explore every phase that they came across and how changed the topography of the entire area. My study is still at the beginning and I hope that the new data will stimulate a fervid debate.

Panel 2.8

Environmental factors on regional economies

Day and Time:

Friday | 25 May | 14:30-16:30

Order of Speakers:


to be announced

Discussant:

to be announced

Paper abstracts

Charalambos Dokos - Katerina Dokou - Paraskevi Liasidou - Despoina Manolopoulou - Nikolas Solomou - Kyriakoula Manaridou, Preliminary topographical and paleobiological data of the area Skales of the village Kato Pyrgos, Tyllirias district, Cyprus: implications about Cyprus coastline cartography

Geographical and geomorphological characteristics of Cyprus changed the route of history of the island. One of the most important questions that “nettle” the interest of geologists, geographers, biologists, historians and archaeologists is the characteristic shape of the coastline. It believed that the current shape of the island was much different than the one in antiquity. Therefore we conducted a large scale survey starting from the area of Tylliria district, in order to estimate the primary coastlines of Cyprus by using topographical and paleobiological data. The area Skales was surveyed thoroughly for identifying marine bivalves preserved in their calcareous shells. Each station was topographically identified. The fossil as intact or fragments was carried carefully and cleaned gently for identification purposes. Each fossil was identified and characterized. Afterwards each specimen was catalogued in order to have the species for each station. Each station was double checked for the exact position of the station, the distance between them and the sea side. In this study twenty five pieces of marine bivalves fossils collected, twenty of them were fragments and five as whole pieces. The clarification of the primary coastline is essential for archaeological excavation purposes. Bivalves are an important paleobiological indicator of sea level changes. Therefore the location of these is essential in order to have a spectrum of the sea level and coastline in antiquity.

Ruben Post (University of Pennsylvania), Climate Change, Crop Yields, and the Agricultural Economy in Ancient Greece

The study of the impact of climate change on ancient Mediterranean societies has grown in popularity in recent decades alongside a burgeoning interest in Graeco-Roman environmental history. Approaches to links between climate and societal change often remain simplistic, however: past trends in temperature or rainfall are reconstructed and correlated with societal developments, assuming simple processes of environmental stimulus and human response. The primary mechanism of climatic impact is posited to be shifts in weather that are either favourable or unfavourable to agricultural yields.
In this paper I analyze this key link in the connection between climate change and society using current agrometeorological research. I posit that the impact of climate change on cereals, grapevines, and olive trees, crucial to ancient Greek economies, is much more complex than previously thought as the growth of these crops depends on the averages and extremes of temperature and rainfall during different stages of the growing period. I examine the impact of such factors on cereal, grape, and olive production and explore our prospects of being able to reconstruct changes in crop production in antiquity using palaeoclimatic proxy evidence. I argue that shifts in different variables could affect elements of the rural economy very differently, and most changes experienced would have precipitated both gains and losses among different crops, often mitigating the impact of climate change.

Manolis Stefanakis (University of the Aegean), Some Remarks on the Economy of the Ancient Deme of Kymissaleis on Rhodes

The ancient Deme of the Kymissaleis, located on the south west coast of the island of Rhodes, has been explored since 2006, in the context of the Kymissala Archaeological Research Project (KARP). Up to date it remains the only case study of the demes of the Rhodian countryside.
The aim of this paper is to understand and better explain the way in which the Hellenistc inhabitants of the ancient Deme adapted to their natural environment and exploited it. The approach is based on the theory of watersheds, according to which an ancient community should have a specific productive space in order to emerge into a political organization with some status of autonomy and independence, and the political geographic boundaries of such a unit should therefore coincide with the natural boundaries of a specific geographical area. As decisive criteria for the delimitation of such a periphery one should consider farmland and pasturage, as well as precipitation (rain, snow etc), on which cultivation (and pasture) depends.
There is plenty of evidence to support that Kymissaleis were indeed adapting natural landscape features to fit the needs of residential communities. Moreover it becomes clear how the inhabitants at each site would have accessed resources through proximity to roads, sources of water, and arable land, as well as the flow of natural and cultural resources among sites and both in and out of the region.

Michele Matteazzi (Catalan Institute of Classical Archaeology), The Upper Adriatic littoral landscape between Atria and Altinum during Roman times: natural environment, road network and land use

Following a landscape archaeological approach and through an integrated reading of all the available archaeological, historical and paleoenvironmental data, the paper aims to investigate the complex relationship man-landscape, which was established over the Upper Adriatic littoral area between the centers of Altinum and Atria during Roman times (3rd cent. BC-6th cent. AD).
If today the relationship between landscape and water looks very tight (the area is in fact characterized by the presence of a complex hydrographic system and the Venice Lagoon basin), we know the quite same condition existed also during Roman times, when classical sources tell us that here there were the northernmost part of the great delta of the river Padus and, above all, a wide marshland called Septem Maria (i.e. "the seven seas"), the area where the river itself flowed to the sea with more branches. Furthermore, the delta area was exploited by a fluvial route going from Ravenna to Aquileia and at least by two important roadways: the via Popillia, and the route remembered by Tabula Peutingeriana that reached Altinum starting from Ravenna.
Therefore, the final goal we want to reach with this study is double: on the one hand, to identify the environmental factors that both favoured and conditioned the Roman occupation of the territory; on the other hand, to come to a better understanding of the forms this occupation took, and of its actual effects on the natural environment.

Session 3

Systems of production: land use, industry, technology, artistic production

Panel 3.1
(double)

Production beyond the palaces: Technological and organizational aspects of LBA ceramic manufacture

Day and Time:

Wednesday | 23 May | 14:30-19:00

Organisers:

Natalie Abell and Jill Hilditch
(University of Michigan)

External
Discussant:


Michael Galaty (University of Michigan)

Panel abstract

Shifts in the organization and technologies associated with craft production have long been recognized as inextricably linked to economic change and development. In Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts, craft production has, until very recently, been seen as an activity closely tied to the Minoan and Mycenaean palaces, and undertaken by specialists or workshops "attached" in one way or another to those institutions. Yet, several recent reassessments of LBA economy have clarified how some production and economic activity took place at the fringes of—or wholly outside of—palatial oversight. Examination of variation in the organization and techniques of ceramic production holds promise for further elucidating the complexity of LBA economies, providing insight into interaction and transfer of technological knowledge between ceramic and other craft specialists, and highlighting variability in how producers did (or did not) respond to the changing exchange patterns and consumer expectations. In addition, despite decades of attention focused primarily on the production of fine and painted wares, recent work has turned to examining coarse, cooking, and even architectural ceramics with a view to explicating where these kinds of wares were produced and what kinds of technologies were employed in their manufacture. Thus, this panel brings together papers focused on these aspects of LBA ceramic production as a means of encouraging comparisons within and between regions, between coarse, cooking, and fineware production, and at different degrees of separation from palatial interest and oversight.

Paper abstracts

Natalie Abell (University of Michigan) and Jill Hilditch (University of Amsterdam), Late Bronze Age Production beyond the Palaces: Introduction

Julie Hruby (Dartmouth College), Using Mycenaean Palaces and Potters as a Mechanism for Understanding How Context and Intensity (Don’t) Work as Models with which to Describe Craft Production

The tablets from the prehistoric Palace of Nestor at Pylos in Greece record four potters; one named Piritawo is “wanakteros” (“royal”). Given his ties to the palace, we would expect to consider him an attached specialist, yet he fails to meet other criteria traditionally associated with the term. This suggests that the term “attached” conflates patronage with quality of output. Despite being a primary supplier for the palace, Piritawo makes vessels that are metrically variable, reflecting a range of factors including carelessness, seasonality, and level of task specialization; these factors indicate that at best, the definition of intensity also requires additional nuance.
Whether our goal is to understand a potter’s lived experience, examine the apportioning of ancient labor, or create a statistical argument for craft specialization, it is critical that we understand the full process of ceramic production. A craftsman who works “part time” (either seasonally or day-by-day) may create more standardized vessels than does a “full time” specialist if the former only shapes pots while the latter digs and prepares clay, forms it, and fires the resulting vessels. Production can be undertaken by a single individual, divided among several (each of whom is responsible for a different task), or shared; it may prove more useful, though methodologically challenging, to discuss ancient artisans in terms of how much time they dedicated to each specific production task.

Kim Shelton (University of California) - Lynne Kvapil (Butler University) - Debra Trusty (University of Iowa), Decisions, decisions, decisions. Examining the role of choice in pottery production at Petsas House, Mycenae

Petsas House, located in the immediate vicinity of the palace of Mycenae, provides an opportunity to study and understand variations in fine and cooking ware vessels from the perspective of both production and consumption. Petsas House, destroyed late in the LHIIIA2 period, was used for habitation and storage in addition to ceramic production and is one of the few examples of multi-use space in a settlement during this period of palatial expansion and centralization. Choices made by potters during production demonstrate an understanding of the need for standardization balanced with a desire for experimentation and innovation.
Within the Petsas House workshop, surviving traces of vessel construction and technical gestures in undecorated fineware and cooking pots speak not only to workshop organization but elucidate the potters themselves. Fine details, such as methods of handle and tripod leg attachments, reveal preferences and skill levels of individual craftspeople. Beyond the workshop, the syntax between surface decoration and vessel shape in painted fineware vessels suggests pots were crafted as much for official use as for individual consumers.
The result of this investigation reveals a sensitivity on the part of artisans to the needs of a consumer base that included, but was not limited to, palatial society. In order to meet the needs of their clientele, multiple potters found ways to standardize production while also reserving the ability to experiment in their craft.

William Gilstrap (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), The protean potter. Economic strategy and social organization in prehistoric complex society.

At the height of Mycenaean culture, from storage to shipment to service, pottery was relied upon as a choice material for vessel production. The raw materials were widely available and the process of production had already become a craft honed by specialized artisans. The sheer quantity of pottery found in excavation records conjures images of a ubiquitous presence and juxtaposes the question of what role both product and producer had in the lives of everyday people atop the citadels and in the fields. The research presented here approaches this topic through an assay of broad typological assemblages from twelve contemporary, yet contextually very different archaeological sites in and around the Saronic Gulf.
An integrated program of analysis reveals a resounding complexity in the structure of Mycenaean social and economic interaction at a variety of scales. For example, observations of both pottery production and consumption make it plain that craftsmen had the ability to act as agents of the palatial elite and the day to day consumer all while participating in trade on the interregional scale. Rarely has it been considered that craftsmen had a multidimensional role in complex societies. Rather these roles are too often considered as completely separate entities. In treating craft production as a composite system, the organizational structure of Mycenaean economic strategy – local, regional, interregional and beyond, becomes much easier to envision.

Kyle Jazwa (Duke University), Non-Palatial Architectural Ceramics in LBA Mainland Greece: Design, Production, and Use

In this paper, I consider the invention, production, and use of architectural ceramics (roofing tiles, built drains, etc.) for non-palatial architecture in Late Bronze Age (LBA) mainland Greece. Categorically, architectural ceramics are at an archaeological middle ground between pottery and architecture. Although they share a material medium with pottery, architectural ceramics have distinct uses and, due to their function, are highly visible. As architectural elements, however, they are also unique, because they require greater labor investment for production relative to their vernacular counterparts. Thus, the extensive use of architectural ceramics in LBA buildings certainly provided a monumental quality to the buildings they adorned. Despite this, such buildings are often not primary palatial structures, but are more often found on subsidiary buildings or at non-palatial sites. This paper explores the implications for the production and use of these architectural ceramics in these non-palatial contexts. First, I show that the use of architectural ceramics had variable meaning in Greece, according to local manufacturing capabilities and labor organization. I then explore the contribution of architectural ceramics to non-palatial ceramic economies and detail cross-craft interaction for each industry. Trained potters are shown to have produced some architectural elements, such as cover tiles, but other elements drew on established architectural traditions.

Natalie Abell (University of Michigan) - Evi Gorogianni (University of Akron), Pottery Production on Late Bronze Age Kea: Organizational Perspectives

Patterns of ceramic production and distribution changed significantly during the Aegean Late Bronze Age (LBA). In the Cyclades, exchange networks reoriented from a focus in the Minoan and Minoanized southern Aegean toward the Mycenaean mainland; local manufacturing choices also shifted, with a nearly complete cessation of production of decorated tableware by LBA III. It has been argued that such changes are a result of the development of mainland workshops and the emergence of the palaces as major production and consumption hubs. Yet, the precise mechanisms by which these changes occurred remain unclear, in part because of a rarity of analyses that highlight the ways in which local producers and consumers—especially outside the “palatial cores”—made choices over time that contributed to changing patterns in material culture.
This paper examines local ceramic production at the Bronze Age town of Ayia Irini on the Cycladic island of Kea, at the fringes of palatial territories. We examine the manufacture of local ceramic objects, including both decorated and plain wares, from tableware to storage jars, in order to examine shifts in the organizational configurations of production to meet demand in various ceramic categories over time. We argue for a more complicated picture of local production than has been implied by previous narratives and suggest that shifting production mechanisms impacted the changes in Keian ceramic assemblages in the LBA.

Emilia Oddo (Tulane University), Palatial and nonpalatial pottery production from domestic neopalatial contexts: an inter-regional case study.

This paper presents the comparative analysis of two contemporary domestic pottery assemblages from two different sites: Knossos (House of the Frescoes), in north-central Crete, and Myrtos-Pyrgos (House B), on the southeastern coast. Although both domestic contexts, the assemblages pertain to different social contexts and are representative of different regional ceramic styles. In terms of social contexts, a comparison between the two assemblages offers the opportunity to reflect upon the way pottery can provide information concerning the character of its broader architectural contexts (elite architecture, House of the Frescoes, and non elite, House B), the variety of human activity related to the area, as well as the nature of the sites (palatial, Knossos, and non-palatial, Myrtos-Pyrgos). In the comparison, I will take into consideration shape typologies and functions, as well as decorations, to draw attention to inter-regional patterns of production and consumption. As we will see, despite the perceived unity of Neopalatial pottery production, once a part of the cultural koine, regional variability dominates the field.

Charlotte Langohr and Iro Mathioudaki (Université catholique de Louvain), Non-Palatial Architectural Ceramics in LBA Mainland Greece: Design, Production, and Use

Malia and Sissi are centuries-old Minoan settlements located at 4 km of distance on the northeastern coast of Crete, 40 km east of Knossos. This paper aims at examining main shifts in table, coarse and cooking wares consumption and production at two neighboring sites in adopting a broad chronological perspective. Malia was one of the major palatial centres of the island; it knew its moment of glory during the First Palaces period before its violent destruction and following rebuilding during the Second Palaces period. The secondary site of Sissi was densely occupied throughout these periods of the Middle and Late Bronze Age; it knew a totally new layout and extension by the beginning of the Second Palaces period. Our current research focuses on refining and comparing the respective local ceramic sequences in order to shed some light on the developments and changes in pottery traditions at both sites. In the framework of this panel, by highlighting and contextualizing the main shifts in the consumption and production of different categories of pottery from both Malia and Sissi, it will be shown how these traditions meet or differ within this region. In doing so, we aim at opening a new window on processes of continuity and rupture at two regional palatial and non-palatial sites of North-central Crete, before, during and after the transition of the First and Second Palaces which sees the formation of a new political and socioeconomic geography for the island.

Jill Hilditch and Caroline Jeffra (University of Amsterdam), As the world turns: technological approaches to assessing ceramic production within and beyond the palaces in the LB Aegean

The focus on unpacking material changes at the transition between the Mid and Late Bronze periods, known widely as Minoanisation, has reassessed the interactions that facilitated the movement of people, objects and technological knowledge off Crete. These new methods open further questions on whether a technological focus can offer new insights into the Mycenaean world.
It is clear that traditional narratives for the initial adoption and use of the pottery wheel within the Mycenaean period are not satisfactory. The emergence of wheel-throwing remains a poorly understood innovation within the Aegean, chronologically and spatially. It now seems clear that wheel-coiling persisted across this landscape throughout the later phases of the Bronze Age, with many regions revealing co-existing ceramic traditions. So, how can we use this information to shed light on the organisation of Mycenaean potting communities? The LB III period across the Aegean is marked by enormous social, political and economic differences, perhaps best represented by palatial vs. non-palatial settlement contexts. This paper explores choices in ceramic forming techniques to assess potting communities during this complex period, for example:
Is there a clear relationship between organisation of production and the potter’s wheel within Mycenaean palatial centres and non-palatial settlements?
Can the adoption and extent of wheel-throwing shed new light on the relationship between Cretan and mainland communities?

Panel 3.2

Organization of space and work: potter's workshops in the Greek World

Day and Time:

Saturday | 26 May | 14:30-16:30

Organisers:

Jon Albers (Universität Bonn)

External
Discussant:


Martin Bentz (Universität Bonn)

Panel abstract

We know hundreds of Greek workshop sites, but only very few are well preserved or investigated entirely – usually we find kilns or waste deposits as indicators for ceramic production. In the past Archaeologists used different approaches to reconstruct the organization of space and work: chaîne opératoire, space syntax, combination of signatures or Roman and ethnographic parallels etc.
This panel plans to present and investigate known or new evidence concerning the organization of the production process by analyzing the sites, products and tools. Examples from the whole Greek World between Iron Age and the Hellenistic period should be considered.

Possible questions are:

  • What is the relation between kilns, working and storage space?
  • What can we say about the position of typical installations like basins, potter’s wheels etc.?
  • Which different kinds of tools or installations were used in which area of workshops?
  • Can we interpret different stamps or marks as part of production or trade?
  • Can we identify workshops, which are specialized only in single steps of the whole production chain?
  • What can we say about the relation between workshops and raw materials (e.g. water supply or clay pits)?

Paper abstracts

1.

Jon Albers (Universität Bonn), Spatial organization of a potter’s workshop in Selinous

Throughout seven excavation campaigns (2010-2016), the department of Classical Archeology of the University of Bonn (Dir. Prof. M. Bentz) excavated the southern part of Insula S16/17 in the Cotone Valley of Selinous in total. Structures of a large potter’s workshop were identified which includes nine kilns from different periods as well as roofed and open working spaces differing in size and function. Structures from the mid-6th century BC covered most sections of the insula and formed a group of older workshops. The subdivision of the later complex was already defined in this period. However, the expansion of the area altered between the mid-6th and the late 5th century BC several times: older buildings were unified to a larger workshop with a minimum size of 1000m2, which incorporated also the northern section of the insula and produced ceramic products of different kind. During these building processes, the deposition of vases as building sacrifices and numerous architectural changes took place. In the course of the Carthaginian conquest of Selinous in 409 BC the workshop was destroyed.
This presentation focuses on the change between archaic and classical patterns through the ages. It examines how the modification of the architectural structures, some specific installations like basins etc. and the used spaces go along with a change of the organization of production from small objects like terracotta figurines to an almost industrial production chain.

2.

Jan Marius Müller (Universität Bonn), Tools, products and objects of everyday live: The inventory of a Selinuntine workshop-building destroyed in 409 B.C.

During the excavations conducted by the University of Bonn in the industrial quarter on the eastern slope of Selinus, next to a big kiln, a tiled workshop-building featuring a roof-tile pavement was uncovered. The inventory of the building was mostly preserved under a destruction layer which can be dated to the year 409 B.C., when the city was conquered and destroyed by the Carthaginians. In its last phase the structure was subdivided in three rooms which, according to the findings, had different functions. They contained typical workshop equipment, storage and cooking vessels as well as evidence of a small domestic sanctuary. The workshop equipment consists, among other things, of a smoothing tool, a bearing of a potter’s wheel and vessels for working with clay and water, but nearly no spacers, which were found in large quantities in other parts of the insula. The evidence points to the conclusion that the building served as working place and shelter for a small crew of potters, who were also responsible for the maintenance of the big kiln and the monitoring of the firing process.

3.

Giovanna Greco (Università degli Studi di Napoli FEDERICO II) - Antonella Tomeo (Soprintendenza Archeologia Belle Arti e Paesaggio per le province di Caserta e Benevento), Cuma: importazioni e produzioni nella città arcaica e classica

Gli ultimi anni di ricerche a Cuma hanno profondamente modificato il quadro delle conoscenze della città antica ed il dato più eclatante è restituito dalla documentazione relativa all’impianto arcaico, negli anni centrali dell’VIII secolo a C.
L’intervento focalizza l’attenzione sugli aspetti economici della città , analizzati attraverso il materiale importato e la nascita di botteghe artigianali ,tra VIII e VI secolo a.C. La notevole quantità , la qualità e la varietà dei materiali rinvenuti parlano a favore di una economia fiorente, partecipe dei traffici che attraversano il Mediterraneo occidentale .
Il contributo essenziale delle analisi archeometriche ha consentito di individuare e definire le produzioni locali che elaborano repertori formali e decorativi selezionati dagli artigiani locali di cui si riconoscono alcune personalità. Emblematica è la produzione del proto corinzio come del c.d italo geometrico o della ceramica a fasce
La presenza dei grandi contenitori da trasporto è un altro parametro significativo dell’economia della città arcaica e classica, così come la notevole presenza di ceramica attica - a figure nere e rosse- rinvenuta nei contesti di abitato , conferma il trend commerciale già noto dai rinvenimenti nelle necropoli; il legame con l’ambiente attico , attestato già con le prime anfore SOS, rimane un fattore stabile nell’economia della città ,ancora in piena età classica con l’importazione di vasellame a vernice nera.

4.

Anne Segbers (Universität Bonn), Greek pottery workshops in South Italy: reconstructing a production system

When the Greeks started to colonize Southern Italy, they also imported their way of pottery production. Specialized workshops existed beside household production from colonization times until the roman occupation.
Excavations show that in the first generations, potters only worked in temporary workshops. From the 6th century BC on, permanent, specialized workshops existed in the cities and settlements. They produced a great variety of products and sold them locally. Only a small amount was exported to other Greek sites or to the indigenous population.
At the same time, the Greeks settled the countryside with farms, small settlements and sanctuaries. Almost all of these sites had their own pottery production, very often at an (almost) specialized level.
Only the analysis of workshops in the cities and in the countryside allow a full view of the production, distribution and consumption of pottery products in a wider region.
The lecture presents an overview of Greek pottery production sites in southern italy and shows how the reconstruction of a craft can contribute to the overall picture of life in antiquity.

Panel 3.3

(Re)Producing images of the divine between Late Republican times and Late Antiquity

Day and Time:

Saturday | 26 May | 14:30-16:30

Organiser:

Marlis Arnhold (Universität Bonn)

Panel abstract

Economic aspects concerning Roman religion cannot only be studied using the extant sanctuaries and under aspects such as consumption, but are essential to all forms of material articulations of cultic practices, such as objects and images. Moreover, they were embedded into the material culture of their respective period of time, even though they may have been reserved for very specific functional contexts. Seeing and perceiving religious imagery therefore cannot be discussed without the analysis of material forms and the production processes which contributed to their creation. Thus the rationalization and economization which affected the production of stone sculpture resulted among others in astonishingly consistent iconographies, motives, and modes of composition which enabled the creation of easily recognizable images of deities. As Marlis Arnhold underlines in her contribution on representations of the Mithras and other deities, these images could nevertheless articulate individual notions of the divine. Katharina Rieger's contribution reviews the prevailing explanations of low costs for standardized and repetitive dedicational objects, and looks for the significance of this economic process for the religious imaginary in Late Republican and Imperial times. Kristine Iara's contribution deals with the city of Rome in Late Antiquity and discusses evidence for the impact of 'budget cuts' on the creation, production and dissemination of these images, previously virtually ubiquitous in the city of Rome.

Paper abstracts

1.

Anna-Katharina Rieger (University of Graz), Multiplied gods: the significance of repetition and modular production of image-objects of Graeco-Roman deities.

The idea of the paper is to look for the significance of the repetitive and little individualized types of imagery of gods dedicated in sanctuaries – mainly statuettes (terracotta or marble). The explanations oscillate between the cheap and easy way of production, but the levels of significance can be differentiated. The phase of their production is where the economic argument ties in. However, when applying a demand-driven approach, the (re-)production of always the same types is also regulated by the clients buying or commissioning the pieces. The clients again act against the background of their cultural and social environment, where individual decision, economic possibilities and religious purpose interact and/or compete. On the next level, the repetition and resemblances effect the communication with people and with the gods, and the appearance of the sacred places, where they are dedicated. The cultural imaginaire – in this case the idea of supranatural gods and the contact to them – could turn out in this perspective to be as much a driver for the repetitive production as are economic reasons.Examples will be drawn from the Late-Republic and Imperial sanctuaries at Ostia, Nemi and Corinth.

2.

Antonino Crisà (University of Warwick), Religion, micro-economies and divinities reproduction on small tesserae in Roman Sicily

Tokens are very common objects nowadays and can be used, for instance, to get a free drink at festivals or pubs. In the Roman world, these objects were produced on a vast scale and are still discovered by archaeologists, although they are often difficult to understand. ‘Token Communities in the Ancient Mediterranean’ is a new research project, founded by the ERC and carried out by the University of Warwick. It aims to understand the role and function of tesserae in ancient communities, focusing on the analysis of finds from European museums.
I am currently studying tokens from Hellenistic and Roman Sicily within this project. The paper aims to present two vital aspects of my research: the role of tokens as a means to activate and boost micro-economies on a local scale, and the reproduction of images to represent community or individual identities. First, I assess a set of unpublished finds from Marineo (Palermo), which testifies how terracotta tokens showing images of local deities could be linked to religious festivals. Moreover, standardization of divine images is crucially linked to the economization of local cults and sanctuaries economies. Second, I analyze some tesserae from Syracuse, which may be connected to tax payments and pastoralism. Such objects, including their iconographies and archaeological contexts, are therefore crucial to understanding how microeconomies and standardized dedicational objects worked in small Sicilian communities.

3.

Regina Hanslmayr, Herms: the Commercial Success of an Economic and Multifunctional Format of Antique Sculpture.

This paper focuses on the widespread use of herms in the Roman world. Depending on context and iconography a herm could serve as an emblem for a lot of different levels of meanings. A copy of the famous Hermes Propylaios by Alkamens recalled the great Athenian past under the rule of Perikles in general. Depending on its specific location, a roman patron could either emphasize the religious connotation of Hermes as the god of boundaries in its typical pillarshaped idol, or rather refer to it as a piece of art by a well known sculptor. Countless small scale hermbusts depicting Dionysus, his entourage, Hermes and other mythological figures offered an even greater range of usability. Based on the evidence in the Vesuvian area those hermbusts embellished private gardens and were often used as a decorative element in marble tables (monopodia). But even when reduced to a small scale and produced in bulk, the original religious purpose of the archaic idol of Hermes still lives on in the Roman Imperial period. A hermbust of Dionysus found in a Lararium in Pompeii is only one of several find contexts that indicate, that despite the decorative function of many of those small scale herms, they still carried a religious message. This talk will also consider the question of specialized workshops and the rationalization that clearly occurred in the production of herms in general and more so in the category of the small scale herms.

4.

Marlis Arnhold (Universität Bonn), Economizing images of the divine

From the Hellenistic period onwards the growing interest of Rome and other urban centers in Greek art led to the development of a great variety of methods and techniques to produce and emulate images including also representations of deities. This also involved involved motives, iconographies, and modes of composition which reveal striking consistencies, as is particularly evident when motives were employed in very different functional contexts, as was the case in representations of the winds or seasons which appear in domestic, funerary, and cultic (i.e. images of the Mithras-tauroctony) contexts alike. This bricolage of image elements which can be found throughout the Roman Empire presupposes their general accessibility and availability for craftsmen and commissioners. Particularly in case of relief sculpture, as can be found in context of mithraea, for instance, motives of specific meaning were deliberately combined to underline the desired characteristics of the represented god. Starting from these consistent image elements of representations of divine agents, the contribution analyses the production modes of these images including the aspects of the availability and accessibility, as well as ways of distribution of motives, iconographies, and modes of composition. Thus asking for the conditions, the economization and rationalization processes affecting the production processes of art from late Republican/Hellenistic times onwards are being discussed.

5.

Kristine Iara (American Academy in Rome), Reproducing and disseminating signs: late antique Rome

The paper’s chronological and geographical focus is on the city of Rome in Late Antiquity, a period of profound transformations affecting both the physical appearance of the city and the civic and religious life of its inhabitants. The material under discussion are the images of gods as well as other objects that refer materially to divine presence (architecture, depictions, inscriptions, etc.). These objects were, in Imperial Rome, virtually ubiquitous. Their production and dissemination on the one hand, their perception on an everyday basis by Rome’s inhabitants on the other, were a matter of course. For an examination of the reciprocity of economic conditions and the material manifestation of religion the time span of inquiry is particularly appealing, as the bulk of investment and resources dedicated to the traditional religion lapsed, especially after the emperor’s interest turned to the new Christian religion. The paper sheds light on the interdependence of ‘budget cuts’ and the material expression of religion by addressing the following three questions: who were the (groups of) persons who had an ongoing interest in investing into religious imagery and other objects (as above), even with melting economic resources? How did this decrease of economic resources become manifest: In lesser quantities of objects, in a reduction in terms of varieties, or in a reduction of the narratives to the bare essential? How did this affect topography in terms of visibility?

Panel 3.4
(double)

Reconstructing Scales of Production in the Ancient Greek World: Producers, Processes, Products, People

Day and Time:

Wednesday | 23 May | 09:00-13:30

Organisers:

Martin Bentz (University of Bonn)
Eleni Hasaki (University of Arizona)

External
Discussant:


Peter Acton 

Panel abstract

Scholars have many ways, both traditional and experimental, to approximate the scale of craft production, which has always been central to the stury of ancient economies. This panel examines these new methods, some borrowed from other disciplines, for estimating the workshop crew size, the workshop physical space, the time requirements for the chaîne opératoire for each product, the needs of the population for different goods, or the percentage of ancient products surviving to this day. Even Cook's (1959) seminal 1% of ancient ceramics modern survival percentage based on the survival rate of Panathenaic amphorae is now considered an overestimation. These new methods and approaches should help us overcome the paucity of archaeological evidence. By employing social network analysis, individual worker's output, architectural energetics, and production-consumption ratios, we aim to improve our understanding of the scale of craft production. in the ancient Greek world, both in Greek mainland and in Greek colonies in Sicily. Archaeologists and ancient economists are using new approaches to study the ancient economy at a micro-level, taking into consideration several variables, such as raw material procurement, labor investment, cross-craft dependencies, apprenticeship periods, and product demand, to name a few. Our test cases range chronologically from Prehistoric to Classical times, and geographically from Athens, to the Argolid, and Selinunte in Italy. The industries covered are pottery-making, vase-painting, tile works, and monumental construction. This panel will show how the labor investment for tiling a roof or for building a monumental tomb in Bronze Age Greece reveals the economic complexity of ancient societies in craft specialization and workforce mobilization. Moreover, estimating the sizes of ancient ceramic workshops can lead to better reconstruction of the economic cycles of production and consumption, which helps us understand the range of scales of imports and exports. Our discussant, Peter Acton, a distinguished economist, has studied several industries in Classical Athens. With his micro-level focus he has demonstrated how some industries have a competitive advantage over others, either by specialization, or increased personnel, or a branded name.

Paper abstracts

1.

Kyle Jazwa (Duke University), Comparing the Labor Investment and Production of Early and Late Bronze Age Ceramic Roofing Tiles in Mainland Greece

In this paper, I evaluate the economics of ceramic roofing tiles in Early and Late Bronze Ages (EBA; LBA) Greece. On two separate occasions, ceramic roofing tiles were “invented,” used for centuries, and subsequently forgotten. The tiles were not adopted from foreign sources and, in both instances, roofed several central structures. Despite this, tiles were not labor saving or functionally superior relative to their vernacular counterparts, but required a significant increase in labor investment. Roofing tiles, therefore, offered an important visual impact to the structures they covered. Despite these similarities between periods, a close examination of the physical remnants of productions demonstrates that there were unique technologies and labor requirements for each period’s tiles. With an evaluation of the assemblages from Zygouries, Mitrou, Eleon, and Lerna and the published accounts of the tiles from Gla, Kolonna, Tiryns, and Midea, I reconstruct the labor requirements for tile production in each period. I then consider these results relative to the local/regional ceramics industries and assess the broader economic impact of tile-roofed structures in each period. I show that roofing tile production in each period was distinct. Whereas LBA tiles required substantially more resources, specialized labor, and integration into the broader economics of ceramics at the time, the demands for EBA tiles could have been met by the household with ad hoc and unskilled production.

2.

Rodney Fitzsimons (Trent University), Laying the Foundations for the Mycenaean State: Labour Investment, Tomb Construction, and Early State Formation in the Bronze Age Argolid

Prior to the appearance of the first palaces at Mycenae in the 15th century B.C., the most impressive architectural manifestation of elite authority in the Argolid was not the palace or the house, but rather the tomb, specifically the shaft grave and the tholos tomb. While the funerary data supplied by these burials have long served as the primary means by which the study of Early Mycenaean state formation has been approached, such studies focus almost exclusively on the grave goods themselves, rather than the tombs that housed them. This paper seeks to address this lacuna by applying an energetics approach to the funerary landscape, an approach that posits that the quantity of labour expended upon any particular architectural project correlates with the socio-political complexity of the society that produced it. Since one aspect of socio-political power is defined by differential access to labour resources, the values thus generated serve as quantifiable and easily comparable measures of the power of those groups responsible for their undertaking. This approach injects a new, yet rarely considered dimension to current discussions of “wealth” and “status” and offers new insight into the nature of the socio-political transformations that transpired during the Early Mycenaean Period.

3.

Giulia Rocco (Università di Roma Tor Vergata), Relations among workshops and craftsmen in protoattic vase-painting: limits and perspectives in quantifying the production

The pottery production of Athenian workshops in the VII cent. B.C., raises many questions, sometimes similar to those risen by their later activity in VI cent. B.C., when the amount of painters/potters and vases produced was considerably higher also for export purposes. In this paper will be examined the limits and perspectives in quantifying the production of a ware made mainly for ritual purposes, the individual worker’s output and the organization of the workshops, that seems more instable than before and later. The major problem in protoattic vase-painting is in fact represented by the difficulty to recognize the transfer of skills and knowledge from an artisan to another and, as result, the reconstruction of the activities of the single craftsmen within a workshop. There are also examples of painters moving from a workshop to another, but also going abroad, in a period in which migration played an important role in the staff turnover and in transferring the style of some protoattic workshops within the territory of Greece and in the West. The workshops of the Vulture and Passas Painters, of the Analatos and Mesogheia Painters and of the Painter of the Cinosarges Amphora offer starting points to examine some of these issues and a comparison term to focus on some transformations in the 2nd and 3rd quarter of the VII century B.C., that may be the consequence of a different historical and social context in which craftsmen worked.

4.

Eleni Hasaki - Diane Cline - Tyler Jo Smith - Najee Olya - Ethan Gruber - Peter Stewart - Thomas Mannack (University of Arizona), Beazley's Connoisseurship-based Athenian Kerameikoi: A Social-Network Analysis

Our paper focuses on the Social Network Analysis (SNA) of the collaborations between Athenian potters and painters of 600-400 BCE as established by Sir John D. Beazley in the first half of the twentieth century. Beazley identified more than 1,000 potters and painters for over 20,000 black-figured and red-figured vases. His attributions have remained largely unchallenged and central to the study of stylistic analysis of these pots.
The visual rendering of these associations will highlight who were the true innovators of the Athenian Kerameikos, and how the entire quarter was interrelated. It will also help us identify some weak associations where the workshops simply satisfied the local demand without amounting to great catalysts of technology and style.
Beazley’s connoisseurship-based attributions have received a lot of criticism because Beazley did not state clearly his methodology and used several terms (also without defining them) to associate painters and potters with each other. The complexity and ingenuity of Beazley's work will be visually displayed, showing that he, despite the criticisms of his work, was in some sense a forerunner of Social Network Analysis. Our project will be the first one to actually visualize, calculate, and evaluate the total amount of all these associations and interconnections, moving beyond simple lists of painters and potters and encouraging scholars to discern previously-unnoticed patterns.

5.

Philip Sapirstein (University of Nebraska–Lincoln), Productivity and staffing of Athenian pottery workshops from a quantitative perspective

This paper builds upon my recent work on the Athenian pottery industry (AJA 117.4: 493-510 [2013]), which demonstrated that the number of vases attributed to a painter corresponds to career length, and whether the painter was a full-time specialist or also potted. The research reveals a significant shift toward specialization after the development of the red-figure technique. My new paper will consider the broader question of workshop staff. An ethnographic model approximates the numbers of individuals that would have been required in the full production sequence. Because it is likely that the painting of the vases occupied a significant fraction of the whole time needed to complete a pot, we can model the personnel of an Athenian workshop according to its total number of associated vases.

I focus on workshops whose corpus is reasonably well defined. Those of Exekias and Nikosthenes are representative of the latter sixth century, when one master potter and painted most vases with only minimal staff support. By the fifth century BC, red-figure workshops like those of Brygos and the Penthesilea Painter must have been substantially larger than their predecessors. However, in the big picture the Athenian workshops remained relatively small, and the evidence for expansion by vertical integration within shops is limited. The early Classical Athenian industry did not develop large manufactories like those attested in regions producing Roman sigillata.

6.

Vladimir Stissi (University of Amsterdam), Millions of vases can’t be wrong -- but how about making them? Assessing the scale of Archaic-Classical Athenian pottery production and its impact on workshop staff

In several recent papers, I have argued that the scale of production of Athenian Black and Red Figure pottery was much larger than is usually assumed. The amount of extant material, the excavated production remains and their spread over the Athenian periphery, the evidence derived from Beazleyan attribution, and estimates of likely consumption rates, even in Athens alone, all seem to point in a similar direction – a seven-figure yearly output for the Late Archaic and much of the Classical periods. While – roughly -- calculating such high estimates, and offering supporting evidence for them, is, in my opinion, not very hard, the part that still largely eludes us regards the way production at such a scale was organized, and what its implications were on a human level. Detailed studies of both excavated workshop remains and attributed vases have offered us indications of labour division and hierarchies within workshops, and there has also been some discussion about numbers of craftspeople involved in various tasks and hierarchical roles. In this paper I want to explore a bit further what large scale production may have meant for the work and lives of the artisans doing the work, to see whether it is possible to offer a general impression of the ways the output was made possible. This will not only help us to understand the achievements of those involved, but is also, I think, a necessary condition to make any estimate of the scale of production realistic and credible.

7.

Martin Bentz (University of Bonn), Production and Consumption of Ceramics at Selinous – a quantitative approach

For the first time a real “potter’s quarter” with at least 84 kilns of cassical time has been identified in Selinous. On this base it seems possible to determine plausible production numbers comparing them to consumption numbers in order to find out if ceramics were produced for subsistence or if a surplus was created. Moreover the number of people living on ceramic production is compared to the number of all inhabitants to understand the role of ceramic production for the city’s economy.

8.

Niccolò Cecconi (Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene), THE ECONOMY OF THE ANCIENT PAVEMENTS. Prices, Contracts and Economy of the Mosaics and Marble Floors in the Ancient Greek World

The proposed paper aims to discuss some archaeological and epigraphical documents related to the prices, contracts and economy of the mosaics and marble floors of the ancient greek world.
The analysis will focus in particular on financial operations relating of marble floors and mosaics registered: in the building accounts of the greek temples and sanctuaries of the classical and hellenistic age (Rationes aedificationum); in the papiri of Zenon Archive; in others significants epigraphic documents.
The research will analyze three main aspects of the documentations:
1) The prices of materials for the production of marble floors and mosaics.
2) The payments of craftsmen involved in the construction of marble floors and mosaics.
3) The relationships between craftsmen and buyers involved in the construction of marble floors and mosaics.
The informations inferred from research, likened with the archaeological data, could provide a first frame of the economic, financial and productive processes of the floors of the ancient greek world.

Panel 3.5 (double)

A. Making Wine in Western-Mediterranean B. Production and the Trade of Amphorae: some new data from Italy

Day and Time:

Saturday | 26 May | 09:00-13:30

Organisers:

Jean-Pierre Brun (Collège de France)
Nicolas Garnier (SAS Laboratoire N. Garnier / Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris AOROC)
Gloria Olcese (Sapienza, Università di Roma)

Speakers:

  1. Jean-Pierre Brun (Collège de France),
    From oil to wine? A balanced view on the production of the most emblematic agricultural products of Antiquity
  2. Gabriella De Lorenzis (Università degli studi di Milano)
    Genomic tools to reconstruct the grapevine domestication and evolution in the western Mediterranean basin
  3. Laurent Bouby (CNRS – ISEM, Montpellier University)
    Cultivated grapes in Roman Gaul. Archaeobotanical data
  4. Nicolas Garnier (Laboratoire Nicolas Garnier)
    Multidisciplinary Research on Wine Production in Southern Italy: Rock-Cut Units (“palmenti”) and Organic Residues in Economic-Historical Context
  5. Anna Depalmas (Università di Sassari) - Cinzia Loi (Ispettore Onorario SABAP-CA)
    Wine in Sardinia. New archaeological data and research methodology
  6. Yolanda Peña Cervantes (National University of Distance Education, UNED)
    Wine production in the Iberian Peninsula in the Roman period: Archaelogy, Archaebotany and Biochemical Analysis
  7. Gloria Olcese (Sapienza, Università di Roma)
    Wine and Sea: Production and Trade of Wine and Amphorae from Latium and Campania. New Data Based on Archaeological and Archaeometric Research
  8. Luana Toniolo (Parco archeologico di Pompei, Grande Progetto Pompei) - Alessandra Pecci (Universitat de Barcelona)
    Wine production and distribution in the Vesuvian region: new evidence for old questions
  9. Ramon Járrega and Enric Colom Mendoza (Institut Català d'Arqueologia Clàssica, ICAC)
    Hispanic Imports to Rome and Ostia in the Early Imperial Age: New Data from Amphorae
  10. Maxine Anastasi and Nicholas Vella (University of Malta)
    From Vine to vat and beyond: the case of ancient Malta

External Discussant:


David Mattingly (University of Leicester)

Panel abstract

“Wine Production and Trade in the Western Mediterranean during Antiquity: New archaeological, archaeometric, archaeobotanical and biomolecular research on an economic indicator”

The goal of this session is to present both new data and current projects on viticulture in antiquity, on the production and circulation of wine, and on the containers that held the wine. These containers have been recently recovered in the western Mediterranean, thanks to interlinking, multidisciplinary research, involving archaeological, archaeometric, archaeobotanical and molecular-archaeological methods.

The focus of our investigation is Italy, in relation to areas of comparison (Spain, North Africa), with the intent to deepen our knowledge of the transformations to the agricultural landscape in certain sample areas. We also aim to focus attention on wine production facilities, which have until now remained under-studied (such as rock cuts); and moreover we intend to focus on the Mediterranean distribution of amphorae which, as the primary containers of the drink, played an important role in religious, funerary, economic and social life in Antiquity.

The advancement of technical knowledge is gradually solving the old question of differentiating between wine and olive oil production facilities. We knew that the same presses were used for both products and henceforth the identification would be based on other markers such as the presence or absence of oil mills or tanks connected by overflows. But now, systematic water sieving can turn up olive stones or grape seeds, and biochemical analyses in gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry now provide very reliable results.

A new synthesis on amphorae and production centers is needed, because the rapid evolution of the methods of analysis and their expansion allow both some certainty about contents (sometimes multiple) and even details concerning the type of wine (red or white).

The second part of the session will present some new data related to the production and distribution of wine amphorae - coming from the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy, Spain and Africa - in Italy and the western Mediterranean, the study of which was also carried out using laboratory methods.”

Paper abstracts

1.

Jean-Pierre Brun (Collège de France), From oil to wine? A balanced view on the production of the most emblematic agricultural products of Antiquity

Olive oil and wine, considered as two emblematic agricultural products during Antiquity, have been overvalued in archaeological studies because their production and trade leave perennial archaeological remains such as presses, vats, jars and amphorae. For a long time, presses were chiefly attributed to olive oil. Progress in research has now established a more balanced view: in the northern part of the western Mediterranean, presses are mainly concerned with wine production as assured by biochemical analyses and carpology. For trade, advances in amphorae typology the multiplication of mineralogical and biochemical analyses restore a more accurate picture of the regional evolution of wine production and trade. Further progress can be made: much of the wine production of wine still escapes archaeology. Domestic production is difficult to retrace because installations are often made of organic materials; large proportion of the local commercial production, which was often made with palmenti or any uncharacteristic devices and was marketed in skin containers. In some regions, such as Cisalpina, Lusitania, Aquitania, etc., wine was produced and marketed in wooden vats and barrels. Thanks to recent progress, we are in a position not only to clarify our knowledge, but also to detect our shortcomings. We also know that it will not be possible to fill some gaps, even by multiplying the angles of analysis, but delimiting them is also an enormous advance in historical knowledge.

2.

Gabriella De Lorenzis (Università degli studi di Milano) - Francesco Mercati (CNR - Italian National Research Council) - Carlo Bergamini and Maria Francesca Cardone (Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria - CREA) - Maria Gabriella Barbagallo (University of Palermo) - Francesco Sunseri (Università degli studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria) - Osvaldo Failla (University of Milan), Genomic tools to reconstruct the grapevine domestication and evolution in the western Mediterranean basin

The Western Mediterranean Sea Basin is a main centre for viniculture diffusion and grapevines domestication, due to its historical importance during the Centuries, strongly influenced by Greek colonization. Sicilia and Southern Italian regions played a key role in the introduction of the wine culture and viniculture techniques in Italy from Greece. A large germplasm collection of grapevine accessions (195) coming from the South of Italy, Greece and neighboring countries have been genotyped by Vitis18kSNP chip array to investigate genetic diversity, population structure and parentage. The SNP profiles differentiated 169 unique genotypes with the higher number of synonymies detected among Italian regions. Cluster analyses identified high genetic similarity values (100-83%) and there was not detected a grouping based on the geographic origin, even though the Greek samples appeared closer related to neighboring country accessions than the Italian ones. Multivariate analysis highlighted an overlapping among the genotypes coming from the different geographical regions, as well as, structure analysis showed a high number of admixed samples. Parentage analysis identified that two Italian cultivars performed a role in the evolution of the grapevine genetic pool in the South of Italy. Genetic results highlighted the common genetic origin of these genetic resources and appeared to reflect the historical and geographical background of this area.

3.

Laurent Bouby (CNRS – ISEM, Montpellier University), Cultivated grapes in Roman Gaul. Archaeobotanical data

Grape cultivation was a highly important activity in the southern areas of Roman Gaul. Many aspects of wine production are nowadays well documented by archaeology. However, little is known about the cultivated grape, itself. Latin writers, such as Columella and Pliny the Elder, provided extensive information about the different types of grapes known during their time. The confrontation of this information with that concerning the modern diversity of grape vines can help us draw new information from ancient texts. But it is still impossible to identify specific varieties, or to know which were cultivated in Southern Gaul.
Archaeological excavations provide significant numbers of well-preserved grape pips, due to waterlogged conditions in some structures. Morphometric analyses were carried out on samples of pips from several rural and urban sites. Geomorphometrics allow to characterize the shape of ancient pips and to compare them to reference collections of modern pips of wild and domesticated grapes. At each site, a proportion of pips display characters typical of the wild morphotype. The significance of this result in the framework of the Roman viticulture will be discussed. Among the domesticated pips, several morphotypes were identified, implying that an important varietal diversity was usually cultivated in Roman farming sites. The results from morphometrics will also be discussed in the light of the first results of palaeogenetical analysis of waterlogged pips.

4.

Gloria Olcese (Sapienza Università di Roma) - Nicolas Garnier (Laboratoire Nicolas Garnier) - Andrea Razza and Domenico Michele Surace (Sapienza Università di Roma), Multidisciplinary Research on Wine Production in Southern Italy: Rock-Cut Units (“palmenti”) and Organic Residues in Economic-Historical Context

Up to now, studies on wine production have covered archaeological evidence, such as presses, vats and storage rooms in farms, or containers such as amphorae and dolia, but only a few studies have also considered rock-cut units (“palmenti”). The project “Fare il vino nell’Italia antica: i palmenti rupestri” aims to produce more detailed studies on these important structures through the use of a multidisciplinary methodology. These studies will focus on the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy.
The project intends to generate, through a morphological comparison of the structures, a first hypothesis about the development of these units over time, and to categorize the unites based on the substances produced in them (wine or oil). Another purpose is to determine whether any relationship existed between local ceramics workshops and the wineries, with the aim of reconstructing the dynamics of the wine industry.
Innovative laboratory methods will allow us to identify any markers of substances absorbed into the sides of the vats. Biochemical analysis clearly shows the presence of markers of grapes (tartaric and malic acids) and of alcoholic fermentation (malonic, maleic, succinic, fumaric, and pyruvic acids). The analysis of eight palmenti has shown the application of pitch (in Etruria) or resin (in Campania) for waterproofing the vats, and that the basins have been used not only for the transformation of grape into must, but also into wine.

5.

Anna Depalmas (Università di Sassari) - Cinzia Loi (Ispettore Onorario SABAP-CA) - Alessandra Pecci (Universitat de Barcelona) - Nicolas Garnier (Laboratoire Nicolas Garnier) - Alessandro Usai (SABAP per la città metropolitana di Cagliari e le province di Oristano e del Sud Sardegna), Wine in Sardinia. New archaeological data and research methodology

Wine is an important drink in the history of Sardinia.
Recent research has allowed to date back of the introduction of wine production and consumption in the region.
The combination of botanical finds and chemical residues allows to suggest the production and consumption of wine already from the Middle Bronze Age.
The Bronze Age settlement of Sa Osa, is one of the few Sardinian archaeological sites, which allows us to reconstruct a complete picture on the development of the exploitation of natural resources, agricultural technologies, as wine’s production.
The grape seeds found at Duos Nuraghes at the Final Bronze Age level are the squat type with short stalks which are characteristic of Vitis vinifera L. var. sylvestris. Discoveries at Genna Maria indicate that in the Early Iron Age there were cultivated as well as wild species.
The stone presses constitute a fundamental element of the agricultural production process and they are of significant interest due to their historical and archaeological value.
Those that have survived often have missing parts and are deprived of their original context in the landscape; therefore, it is difficult to interpret their typology and age. However, they represent an interesting feature that could be related to ancient wine production. A total of 150 fixed rural wine-presses have been found and 50 movable containers, suggesting the widespreading of wine production for a long period of time, that needs further investigation.

6.

Yolanda Peña Cervantes (National University of Distance Education, UNED), Wine production in the Iberian Peninsula in the Roman period: Archaelogy, Archaebotany and Biochemical Analysis

In this session, we will analyse the production of wine in Hispania up from the data that have been supplied by recent archaeological excavations, where archaeobotanical and biochemical analyzing methods have been applied. The increasing implementation in the use of this kind of analysis in Spain and Portugal has allowed us to determine the functional orientation of the great number of press facilities, and to provide new and interesting information about the techniques that were used in the process of wine production and fermentation in this Roman province. With these new analyzing techniques, we can detect new areas of wine production in central Peninsula and Northern Lusitania and to recognize a better study of models of production in the regions where wine has been traditionally manufactured, such as coastal Tarraconensis or the Baetica province. In this presentation, the introduction of similar data obtained from the areas or Italy, Northern Africa and Gallia will enable us to create a comparative frame between the economic trends of the Western provinces of the Empire, where wine was a key product in ancient economy.

7.

Gloria Olcese (Sapienza, Università di Roma), Wine and Sea: Production and Trade of Wine and Amphorae from Latium and Campania. New Data Based on Archaeological and Archaeometric Research

Archaeological and archaeometric studies carried out in the last few years as part of the “Immensa Aequora” Project (www.immensaaequora.org) focused on centres for producing wine amphorae and ceramics in the area of the Tyrrhenian Sea, particularly Latium and Campania. Parallel studies are in the process of reviewing the cargoes of some western-Mediterranean shipwrecks, dating to between the 3rd century B.C. and the 1st century A.D, which were transporting wine in amphorae from Tyrrhenian production centres. The present contribution promises to present a summary of these studies, with particular attention to production in Campania and some in Latium from the 3rd century B.C. to the 1st century A.D. The use of laboratory analyses (chemical and mineralogical) lets us establish some reference groups for the main production sites. Meanwhile, residue analysis, carried out for now on the Greco-Italic amphorae of some shipwrecks (3rd century B.C.) produced in the Gulf of Naples, has made it possible to confirm the presence of red wine on the interior of some types of amphorae.

8.

Luana Toniolo ( Parco archeologico di Pompei, Grande Progetto Pompei) - Alessandra Pecc (Universitat de Barcelona) , Wine production and distribution in the Vesuvian region: new evidence for old questions

Despite the huge quantity of data apparently available about wine production and distribution in the Vesuvian area, much still needs to be done to answer many questions about the scale of production, techonological features and on a wider scale the connections with the other regional production centers.
The paper aims to analyze the state-of-the art considering all the available evidence, focusing on the most critical issues with an approach based not only on a traditional archaeological study but also on archaeometrical analysis of ceramic fabrics and provenance, analysis of residues (gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) and archaeobotanical studies. All these datasets suggest the idea of a more complex than expected landscape of production.

9.

Ramon Járrega and Enric Colom Mendoza (Institut Català d'Arqueologia Clàssica, ICAC) - Giorgio Rizzo - Andrea Razza and Domenico Michele Surace (Sapienza Università di Roma), Hispanic Imports to Rome and Ostia in the Early Imperial Age: New Data from Amphorae

Rome was an extraordinary centre of consumption, and attracted an incredible amount of goods arriving through its ports (Ostia and Portus). After drawing up a comprehensive balance of Hispanic imports to Rome transported by amphorae (wine, oil, salsamenta and fish sauces), the focus will be on two case studies.
In the warehouses of the Markets of Trajan in Rome, about a hundred Hispanic amphorae are preserved. Although, in many cases, their origin is unknown, some of these amphorae were found in the area of Castro Pretorio, where they were part of the filling of some trenches whose date of closure is about AD 45, and whose abundant epigraphy was studied by H. Dressel in 1878. The current study of these amphorae, mostly of Baetican origin (for oil and salting) and of the Catalan coast (in the ancient Hispania Citerior), and even from Lusitania, will shed new light on the trade of Hispanic amphorae imports in Rome.
An important sample area in the region of Ostia is the context of Binario Morto (about 50 BC-50 AD) where remains of a wooden waterwheel and a structure with amphorae used to drain the groundwater have been found. The study of the 335 amphorae shows a significant majority of Hispanic productions, in particular from the areas of the Guadalquivir Valley and around Cádiz, and on the northern coast of Catalonia (as petrological and chemical analysis have confirmed).

10.

Maxine Anastasi and Nicholas Vella (University of Malta), From Vine to vat and beyond: the case of ancient Malta

It has been widely accepted that small islands were suitably placed to adapt to niche markets in their efforts to produce and export desired goods. The Maltese islands were probably no exception to this if we go by what the late Antonia Ciasca suggested in a 1985 article, where she proposed that a small number of locally produced pottery containers carrying foodstuffs were distributed to Maltese individuals residing away from the islands. Since then, new discoveries both in Malta and abroad have brought to light new archaeological evidence to substantiate further this distribution, as well as support a production and export of Maltese wine during the Late Punic/Early Roman period. This short presentation brings together new and old data to highlight what we can surmise so far, as well as our intention to embark on a programme of scientific analyses to corroborate and expand this suggested hypothesis.

Panel 3.6 
(double)

Building BIG – Constructing Economies: from Design to Long-Term Impact of Large-Scale Building Projects

Day and Time:

Friday | 25 May | 09:00-13:30

Organisers:

Ann Brysbaert (Leiden University)
Jari Pakkanen (Royal Hollow, University of London)

Panel abstract

The economic growth of modern societies has been closely linked with construction industries: investments, transport infrastructures for materials, and labour-intensive building programmes all have a large impact on local, regional and even global economies. The end results have shaped the built environment of our every-day lives and have often led to an increased quality of life and affluence, though there are many contrary cases as well. In past pre-industrial societies whenever large-scale building projects took place, extensive manual labour was invested from the moment materials were scouted for, extracted, transported, employed and subsequently maintained. Since most ancient societies were based on subsistence economies, important decision-making was a daily balancing act between building work and agriculture. These decisions often influenced strongly the patterns of land use and may have also resulted in circular economic strategies. This session invites archaeological, experimental, historical and ethnographic/anthropological perspectives addressing the socio-economic and political decision-making needed for construction projects to materialize. With economic and technological processes of construction as a focus, we aim to contribute responses to the following questions: 1- How were large-scale buildings constructed from material, logistical and planning perspectives? 2- How and why were these buildings subsequently and diachronically used and maintained by the various groups? 3- What types and levels of resources and investment, human and other, were needed to achieve and sustain these construction projects? 4- Given that construction took place diachronically and geographically more or less worldwide, can we recognise common denominators, and which are these? How can multidisciplinary and cross-cultural approaches further our research in the Ancient Mediterranean? 5- In economic terms, is it useful to quantify the necessary resources, how can it be done, and what can such data tell us?

Paper abstracts

1.

Ann Brysbaert (Leiden University), Logistics and infrastructure in support of building BIG in the Late Bronze Age Argolid, Greece

In past pre-industrial societies, when large-scale building projects took place, extensive manual labour was invested from the moment materials were scouted for, extracted, transported, employed and subsequently maintained. Since most ancient societies were based on subsistence economies, important decision-making was a daily balancing act between building work and agriculture. These decisions often influenced land use-strategies on several socio-economic levels.
This paper focuses on the Mycenaean Late Bronze Age in the Argolid where large-scale building processes have been intensively studied for quite some time now. However, in employing archaeological, historical and ethnographic perspectives on a much ignored aspect of the economics of prehistoric building – its required infrastructure network – this paper seeks to formulate thoughts on material, logistical and planning perspectives that may have been employed to facilitate, maintain and even improve the infrastructure needed to build long-term and on a large-scale. Taking the local topography into account, it provides a more realistic picture about the types and levels of resources and investment that were needed to achieve and sustain these construction projects. As such it addresses both the practical, and the socio-economic and political decision-making, held at several levels, and needed for the construction projects to materialize.

2.

Kalliopi Efkleidou (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), Understanding large urban planning production in Mycenaean Greece

From the Late Helladic IIIA2-B period and on (ca. 1300B.C.), we find a series of large urban planning schemes taking place in the palatial centers of the Mycenaean Argolid, in Southern Greece. Current research has tended to treat different parts of these large building programs individually and not as unit. This approach, however, does not help us understand in depth the principles and aims behind any large urban planning scheme. In this paper, I focus on the changing urban plan of palatial Mycenae and review the various stages of its transformation through the end of the palatial period (ca. 1200B.C.). I use the evidence to argue that this scheme was strategically initialized and financed by a rising elite which founded its power on control of the palatial sector of the settlement’s economy (workshops for processing exotic and local raw materials and storages for goods traded) and sought social and political legitimation by establishing a close spatial and symbolic bond with the revered elite ancestors and the divine. Gradually, these three axes (economy, ancestors, the divine) were transformed into the founding pillars of the wanax’s power.

3.

Daniel Turner (Leiden University), Constructing multi-use tombs in Late Bronze Age Attica and Achaea

In the late second millennium BC, Mycenaeans dug large tombs into hillsides with speed and precision. Many of these chamber and tholos tombs take an iconic shape: 1) a narrow passage (dromos) leading to a façade pierced by 2) a bottleneck entrance (stomion) closed with a rubble wall. Through the stomion lies 3) a vaulted chamber (thalamos) many times the size required for interring bodies and possessions. Digging such extravagant, multi-use tombs required strength, coordination, and confidence. Both the initial construction and subsequent reopening(s) created a spectacle similar to cyclopean wall construction, albeit at a smaller scale. Reconstructing that process has simplified with advances in photogrammetry and comparative labor costs. This paper combines photogrammetric models and comparative labor costs to discuss tomb construction at sites in Achaea and Attica.

4.

Yannick Boswinkel (Leiden University), Breaking down monumental constructions: people, costs and techniques

Studying monumentality has many issues, partly because it is such an ambiguous term. However, if one accepts the monumentality of a construction as being bigger and better relative to contemporary structures there might be a means to compare structures. To be able to compare size and quality, one could quantify a structure based on the necessary labour-investments. Quantifying monumentality through labour-cost studies is not new and has been criticized as well as celebrated in the past. By breaking down a structure to its individual components and how these came to be, it is possible to get an estimate of the workforce that was needed for different stages like quarrying and transporting the material as well as for the actual construction of the building. One of the issues with such studies is the sheer amount of assumptions that are needed at every step of the process of calculating a total sum of investment. A case study from Mycenaean Greece (±1600-1100 BC) will be presented in which fortification walls have been recorded in 3D with high accuracy, using Total Stations and photogrammetry. It will be evaluated whether such high precision recording can add anything to the quality of the labour-cost analysis. If the quality can be increased, then this might increase the usability and the reliability of labour-cost analyses. Ultimately, it might improve our understanding of monumental constructions.

5.

Sabine Beckmann, Built to last – Middle Bronze Age landscaping development in the region of Agios Nikolaos, Crete

The mountain slopes west of Agios Nikolaos, settled in Minoan Protopalatial times by over 330 dispersed agricultural sites built with massive foundations, are situated far from known Minoan settlements and palaces. They present an otherwise unknown feature of Bronze Age landscaping, comprising not just dwelling ruins, but also ample traces of small enclosures (pens, gardens) and long enclosure walls (in sum over 150km length). The sites sit rarely further than 300m from each other, and the enclosure walls attribute on average 3.5ha of mixed rocky and arable land to them, defining the sites’ function as “mixed agriculture”.
The massive architecture of the few known until recently preserved ruins has led scholars in the past to see them as military sites, and only the actually extant large number of dwellings and their enclosure walls made clear that these installations were not part of a defence system along a “Mycenaean Military Road” (A. Evans in 1895), but rather of a well organized hinterland landscape, capable of providing the coastal settlements with a range of commodities needed to expand power structures and international trade.The sheer massiveness of the sites’ constructions also show them to have been an effort suitable to the first Cretan “palatial” society’s political economy – “built to last” as many of them have been re-used in the recent past for mixed agriculture.

6.

Jari Pakkanen (Royal Hollow, University of London), Building Big and Greek Classical and Hellenistic Houses? Estimating Total Costs of Private Housing in Attica

The presentation will use different types of source materials to estimate the construction costs of private housing in Late Classical and Hellenistic Attica. The city blocks and houses of the Piraeus are the basis of the first case study and new data from the fieldwork project on the island of Salamis conducted by the Ephorate of Antiquities of West Attica, Piraeus and the Islands and the Finnish Institute at Athens form the second one. Archaeological data, building accounts, other ancient textual sources and modern ethnographical data are the most important categories of evidence. The cost of constructing an individual house was small but the total expenditure of building city blocks in towns and cities was substantial. The ancient remains in Attica are mostly covered by dense modern blocks, so the new archaeological data from Salamis is important. Also, the city blocks in the Piraeus and Salamis follow a rectangular plan, so the excavated remains are sufficient for a reliable reconstruction of a typical insula. A model of how to estimate the total cost of building materials and construction processes of private ancient houses is presented. Econometric quantification can lead to new ways of studying the social and economic significance of construction and upkeep of private houses. The work-rate estimates used in the calculations are based on a range of different sources and it is possible to cross-check their values.

7.

Janet DeLaine (University of Oxford), Building for the gods: the so-called ‘Capitolium’ at Ostia

The so-called ‘Capitolium’ at Ostia, built in the early Hadrianic period, was the largest and most imposing of Ostia’s temples, representing the greatest input of resources in terms of materials and construction in its religious landscape. The shell is built of brick-faced concrete, the standard building material of second century AD Ostia, but of the highest quality using very uniform brick from an extremely small group of suppliers. The marble elements of the architectural order and surface decoration, on the other hand, were exceptional in the context of Ostia, with some elements having their closest parallels in the Pantheon at Rome, built just a few years previously. On the basis of this it has been argued that the temple must have been the gift of the emperor Hadrian, as being beyond the resources of the local community. This paper sets out to test our current understanding of this building project by putting it on a firm economic footing, and comparing it quantitatively both to other temples in Ostia and to the Pantheon itself.

8.

Roberta Ferritto (University of Reading), The impact of the luxury maritime villa construction boom on the prestigious coast between southern Latium and Campania

The proliferation of maritime villas along the coast between southern Latium and Campania led to a progressive demographic, socio-economic, and environmental change.
Generally, prior studies have been seen in the Bay of Naples the geographical area of the Italian peninsula where first maritime villas emerged. Actually, comparing our research data, a substantial difference has been observed: it was the coastal Latium the area that first experimented with the construction of maritime villas.
This paper will examine the effects occurred in both regions following the intensive building activity of maritime villas along their coasts from socio-economic, productive, architectural and organisational perspectives.
By comparing the information between the two regions, it has been possible to detect common architectural trends from which, depending on the morphology of the territory, we move away. Thanks to the cross-referencing of data, it has been possible to create a dense network of comparisons with similar maritime architectures in the Ancient Mediterranean.
The maritime villa was a true form of economic investment aimed to satisfy both the villa's own needs and local and outside market. A profit-making enterprise typical of our villas came from fishponds with the breeding of high-quality fish. In order to quantify the average income that could be achieved from these structures, we tried to attempt of quantifying the amount of fish that could be grown at the fishponds of villas.

9.

Anna Gutierrez Garcia-M. (IRAMAT-CRP2A, Université Bordeaux Montaign), Stone for a provincial capital. Procurement strategies, logistics and dynamics for the monumentalization of Roman Tarraco's urban landscape

During the last decades, the understanding of the Roman town of Tarraco (modern Tarragona, Spain) has leapt forward thanks to the several archaeological excavations and research programs carried out. Among them, those related with the remarkable nearby quarry of El Mèdol, from where most of the stone used in the building projects were prized off, had shed new light on the extent, chronology and dynamics of the local resources exploitation directly engaged in this phase of great constructive activity and urban renovation.
The discovery of a control point of the production and the remains of a possible Roman shrine as the results of the archaeological excavations undertaken in specific areas of the main quarrying area as well as the location a large collection of ephemeral inscriptions on blocks abandoned in front of the quarry and of a loading bay in a nearby beach provide exceptional information on both the technical, operational and human aspects of the procurement of the most basic raw material needed for Tarraco’s chief large-scale building public project.
On the other hand, the increasing studies on marble and other ornamental stone remains and the advances on Tarraco’s harbour help to understand the various-scale dynamics that provided the decorative stone and sculptures needed to give these public buildings the dignity or decorum to befit its status as capital of the largest province of the Western Roman Empire.

10.

Ben Russell (University of Edinburgh), Shipping Building Materials by Sea: Logistics and Planning

Demand for prestige materials, primarily from major imperially-funded projects but also from locally-funded schemes all around the Roman world, put enormous strain on the producers of raw materials and, especially, transporters. Big buildings demanded big materials and this had an impact on the infrastructure through which these materials were used and the means of transport employed. Purpose-built vehicles are attested in certain cases (the special barges used for moving obelisks being the best-known examples) but in most cases existing vehicle types and infrastructure were used and simply pushed to their limits. Fashions for polychrome stones placed particular strain on systems of supply and will be the focus of this paper. Three topics will be examined:

  • What the shipwreck evidence reveals about the size and arrangement of cargoes of stone destined for building, the routes taken by these cargoes;
  • The infrastructure at ports around the Mediterranean and how these points of departure and arrival were tied into wider transport networks that facilitated the movement of stone;
  • The practical impact of different fashions for stone use on supply networks and the limitations of ancient transport systems on the distribution of stone.
The aim of this paper is to explore how the practicalities of transport played a key role in determining what stones were used in what projects and in what quantities.

Panel 3.7

Organization of Production and Crafts in Pre-Roman Italy

Day and Time:

Friday | 25 May | 14:30-16:30

Organisers:

Nadin Burkhardt (KU Eichstätt-Ingolstadt)
Robinson Krämer (Universität Rostock)

Panel abstract

Recent excavations and investigations in the field of workshop structures, such as Gabii, Herakleia, Kroton, Lokroi Epizephyrioi, Naxos, Selinunt and Kyme show the needs and chances for a new discussion of the organization of production and crafts in Pre-Roman Italy. This panel attempts to examine different organizational structures, specializations and typical features of crafts. Parameters and indicators may be the (I) context (independent – attached), (II) concentration (dispersed – nucleated), (III) scale (small, kin-based – factory) and (IV) intensity (part-time – full-time). The contributions of this panel investigate geographical, chronological and functional patterns for different types and contexts of crafts and productions. These may include, but are not limited to: autonomous individuals, household-based productions, workshops for a regional consumption, attached producers within government or sacred institutions or large-scale productions and facilities (note 1). This panel covers a period from the early iron age to late archaic/early classical times and focusses on different functional senses with a concentration on Italy. In analyzing case-studies we aim to give new insights into modes of organization for productions and crafts in Pre-Roman Italy.

Paper abstracts

1.

Robinson Krämer (Universität Rostock), Was there an Etruscan Ritual Economy? Tracing the Organization of Production and Crafts in Etruscan Sanctuaries (8th–5th centuries BCE)

My paper examines the different forms of production and crafts in Etruscan Sanctuaries from the early Iron Age to the 5th century BCE. The main focus of this analysis are not products, rituals of artisans, or operational chains. Instead, I investigate organizations of productions and crafts within the Etruscan Ritual Landscape during the Urbanization processes in the Orientalizing and Archaic periods.
A focus will lie on three ‘classical’ productions and crafts: pottery productions, metalworking, textile productions. Furthermore, I will also study the writing process and scribes as well as the standardization of weights in sanctuaries (ponderaria). Both phenomena have not been investigated yet in economic terms – especially not for Etruscan Sanctuaries. I will reconstruct the Etruscan Ritual Economy and patterns of organizations by investigating the above mentioned productions and crafts. To achieve this goal, ethnographic approaches as well as theories and models from other cultures will be considered.

2.

Friederike Bubenheimer-Erhart (Universität Wien), Origins and Early Developments of Etruscan Jewellery Productions

Central Italy is rich in metal deposits, but there are no gold resources anywhere near at all. Surprisingly enough, gold ornaments of the highest quality make their sudden appearance from the late 8th century BCE on. The questions arise of where the raw material comes from and of whom the Etruscan jewellers had learned their craftsmanship from. Since the earliest artefacts are found at places along the Tyrrhenian coast, it seems reasonable to assume, that their appearance is due to overseas contacts. The most plausible source for the raw material is Nubia, which was then belonging with Egypt. As to the Etruscan artefacts, some types seem to be worked upon Egyptian prototypes, for others the prototypes are said to be Phoenician or remain uncertain. The mastery of working techniques such as granulation and filigree is usually ascribed to Phoenician craftsmen, who are known as immigrants to Coastal Etruria. This may account for certain aspects, but certainly not for all. It seems quite likely, that the Etruscans owed at least some of their skills to Egyptian craftsmen, too. The aim of this paper is to shed light on some of the problems concerning the origins and early developments of Etruscan Jewellery productions in order to better understand this highly skilled and brilliantly mastered craft of Pre-Roman Italy as a chapter in the history of gold winning, raw material trade, technology transfer and production in the ancient Mediterranean world.

3.

Raffaella Da Vela (Universität Leipzig/ URZ), For the pottery and for the potters: an ergonomic approach to ceramic production in Ancient Italy

This paper proposes to analyse the organization of the work within italic and etruscan ceramic workshops (7th-2nd c. B.C.).
The ergonomic approach takes in consideration the efficiency of a workshop, as the whole of structural conditions, which allow to produce more and better with lower energy costs. The research question focuses on the relationship between production and organisation of the work, in particular if the workshops are focussed on the products, on the producers or on the satisfaction of the demand.
The following three parameters are taken in account for the quantitative and qualitative analysis: integration of the workshop in the commodity system (proximity to sources and roads, destination of the products); structural organisation within the workshop and workflows (working times, steps, paths and proceeding); dimensions of the production. For each parameter I will present some concrete case-study in different regions. The elaboration of ergonomic diagramm of production and the observation of the value given to producers and products will be related to the political and economic system in which the workshops were embedded. Through the longitudinal analysis of the archaeological data, the paper aims to detct analogy and differences in the concept of ergonomics within different political and economic systems and mentalities of pre-roman Itlay.

4.

Nadin Burkhardt (Katholische Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt), Structures and patterns of bronze workshops in early Greek settlements in the West

Pithekoussai, the first Greek settlement in the West, is not only known for the famous Nestor cup. The necropolis and the votiv pits offer rich archeological material in ceramics, terracotta-figurine, seals and bronze objects. Some of these bronze objects seems to have been produced on-site. In the località Mazzola a bronze workshop was excavated, built on three terraces, with houses and open areas, which was in use from the 8th to the 6th century BC. In 2016, a new archaeological excavation started in the neighbourhood of this workshop area. In this context was undertaken a new research of the bronze objects, the semi-finished products, the technical equipment, the tools and the traces of the production process.
Commercial opportunities and especially commodity trade are often considered as reasons for the Greek Western colonisation. The archaeological finds in Pithekoussai and Campania argue also for an commerce with ceramic vessels and bronze objects like jewelry. Metalworking and trade can be the reason for the rapid economic rise of Pithekoussai and Cuma.
The offering of such remains of bronze production in the local sanctuary will be included in the analysis. On the Acropolis in the località Scarico Gossetti, certain quantities of amorphous, unworked iron and a small lump of iron from the island of Elba were found among other votive offerings.
The archaeological remains and finds of Pithekoussai will be compare to similar findings in other Western Greek settlements.

5.

Sophie Helas (Universität Bonn), Eine eisenzeitliche Werkstatt in Gabii/Latium

Im Rahmen der Erforschung der Stadtmauern von Gabii wurde auch eine Werkstatt entdeckt und freigelegt, die im 10. vorchristlichen Jahrhundert angelegt und bis mindestens in das 9. Jh. v. Chr. genutzt worden ist. Die baulichen Reste der Werkstatt haben sich auf der Innenseite der Stadtmauern der Arx erhalten. Die Installationen (Gießgruben, Schmelzherd, Trockenschrank) und Funde (Gussform) lassen den Schluss zu, dass hier die Weiterverarbeitung von Buntmetallen stattgefunden hat. Die Verhüttung des Erzes hat an anderer Stelle stattgefunden. Hergestellt wurden wahrscheinlich kleine Bronzebarren, die als Rohprodukte gehandelt oder aber weiterverarbeitet wurden, aber auch größere Objekte im Vollgussverfahren.

Panel 3.8

Women and men at work! Entrepreneurs, ateliers and craftsmen in the construction and destruction of Roman tombs

Day and Time:

Thursday | 24 May | 14:30-16:30

Organisers:

Marianna Castiglione (Università di Pisa)
Myriam Pilutti Namer (Scuola Normale Superiore)

Panel abstract

Funerary Archeology is a widely discussed topic that includes the analysis of archaeological and anthropological data and the exam of literary and epigraphic sources. Scholars have mainly studied the connections between the tomb and its evidences and artifacts, to obtain quantitative and qualitative information. Very few attempts have been done to analyze the system of production at the base of the ‘death market’, excepting some epigraphic studies, because of the difficulty to well identify the ateliers in archaeological contexts.

The “archaeology of technology” related to the tombs was strictly linked with the Roman economic history: despite the lack of data, many workers were involved in the ‘funerary economics’ and in all the activities connected to the tombs’ construction and destruction. If we use a “micro-economic approach” and consider only the craftsmen participating in the execution and lying of stone materials, we should mention marble workers, stonemasons, manual laborers, polishers, experts in writing and sculptors. Particular attention should also be given to the people responsible for the ideation and realization of funerary paintings. Furthermore, there were the entrepreneurs, both men and women, sometimes mentioned in ancient sources but usually neglected by modern literature, and finally the commissioners, the most studied component of this flourishing economy – at least until the 3rd century AD. From this period the market decreased, because of the competition with Christian inhumation practices.

Because of this progressive fall of interest and request of “built” tombs, many laws appeared, in order to impede the spoliation of funerary monuments to obtain lime or building materials for reuse. So, the wealthy ‘market of death’ lives a new life and transforms itself in a new successful one, thanks to the reuse of ancient parts from monumental tombs in the building industry, for structural reasons or for symbolic values.

Thus, the panel aims to create a debate on these two phenomena: the production system connected to the tombs’ creation and construction, considering all the people involved and including the female contribution at the question, as well as the reuse of previous funerary materials in the late antique building industry. Selected case studies could allow both the investigation on the specialization and diffusion of technical and artistic knowledge, and the understanding of social, economic and juridical history of the sites.

Paper abstracts

1.

Marianna Castiglione (University of Pisa), Working in/for Pompeian funerary contexts: business, craftsmanship and customers

Even if in studies on Roman economy, the contribution of funerary contexts is often neglected, due to the lacking of archaeological and literarily documentation, tombs and the economy related to their ideation, construction and transformation had certainly a noticeable importance, because of the many activities and people involved. For a better understanding of this topic, this paper will focus on some examples from the large-scale necropolises on the outskirts of Pompeii. They will be carefully analysed with all their features: the exam of the structures and the building materials allow to establish the geological nature and their geographical origin, showing commercial and economic networks; the signs of working tools indicate the technical abilities of craftsmen and stonemasons; paintings, stucco, capitals and statues’ realisation give us an insight into the artistic and artisanal world as well as into styles, models and local fashion; inscriptions shed light both on skills of writers and on customers and entrepreneurs, sometimes mentioned as females; stratigraphical and chronological data inform about construction, destruction and transformation of funerary monuments, gardens and burial areas.
This paper aims to investigate in depth all these questions, also connecting the funerary evidences with the whole ancient city and some other Campanian centres, in order to enlarge the point of view and find the connection between Pompeii and its hinterland.

2.

Stefania Tuccinardi (Universtà di Napoli Federico II), Mausolei a pianta circolare in Campania: progetti, architetti e officine tra l’età cesariana e la prima età giulio-claudia.

Il funerale di Augusto e il grandioso mausoleo, di tipo a tumulo, che fece costruire per sé e per i suoi familiari rappresentarono sia la massima espressione dei precetti tradizionali e delle forme architettoniche già in uso sia un modello che mai si sarebbe potuto eguagliare.
Con la nascita del Principato si verificarono cambiamenti importanti anche nei costumi funerari così come in tutte le altre forme della vita pubblica e privata; la nuova temperie politica fu evidente nella scelta dei tipi architettonici, nelle modalità del rito funerario, nel repertorio della decorazione.
Lo scopo della comunicazione è tracciare la fisionomia di questo processo nel quadro territoriale della Campania antica utilizzando come “fossile guida” una particolare tipologia architettonica, quella del monumento a tumulo. Si presterà una particolare attenzione all’uniformità dei progetti individuati in modo da verificare se questi possono essere rivelatori dell’attività di officine specializzate e se scelte progettuali e decorazione architettonica sia siano sviluppate, come sembra, di pari passo.
In particolare, attraverso casi di studio specifici, quali la documentazione fornita dalle città di Capua e Nola, verrà analizzata la diffusione di una particolare variante del tumulo propriamente detto che pare potersi attribuire, nella peculiarità del modello di riferimento, a una stessa officina o meglio a gruppi di artigiani che risultano aver condiviso le stesse competenze tecnico-progettuali.

3.

Fanny Opdenhoff, Sculpting his own Grave? Artefice and craftsmanship in Tombstones from Bordeaux

The tombstones from Roman Bordeaux present a spectrum that could be found at many sites in Roman Gaul. The range of sizes, subjects, motives and qualities in execution ranges from very simple and modest compositions to ambitious and over life-size monuments scultped mostly from rather soft and coarse local stones. Overall, they provide interesting impressions of local tastes and conceptions of identities, as well as of craftsmanship, styles and work routines of stonemasons, sculptors and writers.
One example from Bordeaux, which seems to be average in many respects, excels with regard to the directness by which it refers to these crafts: It shows a sculptor manufacturing his own tombstone. The man, sitting inside a niche, is literally just finishing the work on his own image. The inscription further tells us that his brother was involved in the process too. Therefore, this monument gives us unique insights not only into the "styled self" of an individual and the very special subject/object-relation between himself and his workpiece. It also allows for a reconstruction of the role and understanding of a scupltor's family in their local context.
In this paper I will examine both, the traces of craftsmanship and workflows in the local monuments as a group, and the sculptor's tombstone as a case study on the roles played by an individual in the design and manufacturing of the monument.

4.

Anna Bartol (University of Warsaw), Funerary gardens in Roman province of Lycia et Pamphilia – the process of setting and the utilitarian aspect

This paper examines the process of setting and the utilitarian quality of the funerary gardens in Roman province of Lycia et Pamphilia. Their presence around tombs offered a pleasant site for the commemorators and was certainly significant for the tomb owners. However, more importantly they provided a productive garden to help pay for its upkeep. These gardens were often termed “κῆπος” (kepos – garden, orchard), “κηπίον” (kepijon - parterre) or “κηπόταφος” (kepotaphos – tomb garden) in epitaphs, implying economic character of the cultivated land. This paper aims to illuminate the function of these areas lying near the sepulcher on the basis of archaeological and epigraphic data. The findings from the research illustrate the existence of warehouses (aedificia, horrea) in the area of the burial. In my paper, I would also like to give special attention to the mentioned in an inscription - πωμαρίτης (pomarites) and πωμαριτίσσα (pomaritissa) - respectively male and female gardener - and the garden guards residing in the area of the burial.

5.

Myriam Pilutti Namer (Scuola Normale Superiore), The afterlife of stones after the disruption of Roman tombs in late Antiquity and Middle Ages

In my speech I will address the issue of the disruption of Roman tombs during the late Antiquity and the high Middle Ages. I won't consider the cultural phenomenon, very well studied. Instead, I will focus on technical aspects like the possible identification of ateliers at work in the territories of the Roman Empire between the 5th and the 11th centuries. Starting from the case study of Campetti (Veio), where archaeologists have recently found a big deposit of piled fragments of marble dated to the 7th century, I will explore the ‘market of marbles’ considering juridical aspects and the hypothetical profiles of professionals involved. Major interest will be dedicated to the area of the Venetia et Histria, where most of monumental tombs settled in the streets of Roman cities have been looted to build the foundation of different kind of architectures. An overview of well known local case studies of stones which pertained to some funerary monuments (from Venice, Trieste and Verona) will help the discussion to be addressed properly.

Panel 3.9

Messapia: economy and exchanges in the Land between Ionian and Adriatic Sea

Day and Time:

Saturday | 26 May | 14:30-16:30

Organisers:

Francesco D’Andria and Grazia Semeraro
(Università del Salento)

Order of speakers:


to be announced

Panel abstract

Ever since the Bronze Age, the geographical position of Messapia, between the Ionian and Adriatic seas, has enabled the development of relations characterised by continuity within the framework of mobility in the Mediterranean. In the light of the most recent investigations, the panel will adopt a multidisciplinary approach to the regional economy, production and exchange, in a period from the Iron Age to the Roman conquest in the mid 3rd century BC. The panel will focus on certain aspects of the economy in Messapia, with particular reference to bio-archaeological themes (including livestock rearing and the consumption of animal resources), textile production (to be analysed by applying archaeometric methods to residues of fabric) and imports of luxury products from Greek cities and the Greek colonies of southern Italy. The Iron Age, a period when the Salento was at the centre of traffic and migrations that led to the establishment of the Greek settlement of Taranto in the late 8th century BC, will be the focus of special attention. Of interest are the production techniques of the indigenous settlements and commercial exchange, which is seen from an early period, particularly on the shores of the Strait of Otranto. The presence in grave goods of imported prestige items will be investigated with reference to the forms of self-representation adopted by the Messapian aristocracy in both funerary rituals and manifestations of power within the settlements. The variety of religious manifestations in the Messapian world constitutes a particular case study linked to cultural exchanges, which, thanks to the recent discoveries of places of worship, can now be investigated in detail. Important in this regard are the discoveries made in Castro, where the Athenaion – linked to the myth of Aeneas's first landing on the shores of Italy – was identified. In this site, the abundance of votive offerings, the richness of the structures of the cult and the ways in which the rituals were performed all enable us to investigate the investment of resources in the religious dimension, especially the consumption of collective energy in the manifestations of the cult. A further objective is to reconstruct the economic system underlying the cult in Messapian society, considering its relationships with the other peoples of the Mediterranean.

Paper abstracts

Jacopo De Grossi Mazzorin and Claudia Minniti (University of Salento), The use of animals in economic practices and ritual offerings of Messapia

In this paper the animal remains from several sites of Messapia are discussed in view of our understanding of the dynamics of animal exploitation in the region from the 8th to the 3rd century BC.
Zooarchaeological data were obtained from a great variety of different context types, the most common being residential, suburban and ritual features. Those from residential features observed in many settlements provide significant information on animal management and diet practiced by Messapic communities particularly in view of the relative interaction between local and introduced cultural elements as a consequence of Greek colonisation of southern Italy at the end of the 8th century BC.
The scenario presented by ritual contexts enlightens about the interaction between man and animals in an abstract symbolic system consisting of beliefs, myths, and doctrines of religion, in which the emphasis of one of animal species than the other, difference in the composition of the animals offered, their ages and anatomical parts would seem strictly tied to the rituals that were practiced.

Katia Mannino (University of Salento), Consumption of luxury goods and art among Messapian aristocrats

In the framework of studies into ancient economies, the research by the University of the Salento focused on those contexts of southern Puglia where imported goods have been discovered have thrown some light on the role played among the Messapians by the purchase of luxury goods, above all bronzes and Greek vases. The discoveries in dwellings, sanctuaries and funerary areas reveal that from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC the phenomenon - linked to the dynamics of self-representation on the part of aristocratic groups and the consolidation of power in the settlements - presents features that are distinct to the various types of context. This takes us considerably beyond the generic equation ‘luxury goods = indicators of status’: indeed, analysis of the objects in contexts makes it possible to determine, case by case, the meaning that the purchasers attributed to the luxury goods selected with reference to their ‘function’ and, in the case of vases, ‘images’. Given their symbolic value, the latter were fundamental in the communication strategies adopted by the aristocracies, who, thanks to knowledge handed down from one generation to the next, felt an affinity for the myths and cultural phenomena of the Greek world. These luxury goods constituted an important tool for the aristocrats, for whom the objects were elements of a shared language, used as a strong sign of cultural identity, communicating a range of messages useful for the affirmation of the individual groups.

Francesco Meo and Hedvig Landenius Enegren (University of Salento), Textile Manufacture in Messapia

In recent years research has highlighted the importance of textiles in the ancient economy. Experimental archaeology undertaken at the Centre for Textile Research (CTR) at the University of Copenhagen in collaboration with the Centre for Historical-Archaeological Research and Communication (CHARC) at Lejre, Denmark has been fundamental in this endeavour, focussing on the technical aspects of ancient textile manufacture. The study of the parameters of ancient textile tools such as the weight and thickness of spindle whorls and loom weights have now made it possible to calculate within a range the type of textiles produced at any given archaeological site.
The aim of this paper is to present a first overview of textile production in Messapia through textile tools and a few mineralised pieces of cloth.
The analysis of loom weights from some Archaic domestic contexts such as those at Cavallino and San Vito dei Normanni suggests a production of fine quality textiles in the Archaic period. Decorative schemes on the loom weight material reveal aesthetic choices and/or utilitarian preferences at the time. More importantly, these may also point to cross-cultural contact.
The study of textile tools from Hellenistic contexts such as those from Muro Leccese and the possibility to analyse some fragments of cloth mineralised on fibulae from Vaste give us the possibility to complete the picture of information also for later phases.

Francesco D'Andria (University of Salento), Economy of the cult in Messapia

The systematic investigations conducted in Messapia since the 1970s have made it possible to reconstruct the system of settlements, some of which played a dominant role within a “cantonal” division of the region. In this framework we will examine the main places of worship that have been systematically investigated in order to assess the investment of resources by the ancient communities of Messapia in the religious dimension. Account will be taken of the various types and functions of the individual places of worship in the region. Indeed, coastal sanctuaries linked to trading activities, sanctuaries frequented by communities differing in terms of language and culture, sanctuaries situated in strategic locations for navigation (Castro, Athenaion), Thesmophoric sanctuaries linked to the production of staple goods and sanctuaries dedicated to polyadic divinities and aristocratic cults (Vaste) are all attested. From the variety and multiplicity of the cults and the procedures linked to the rituals, the various aspects of the economic dimension of worship can be reconstructed. Indeed, they are seen in in the construction of buildings, the use of craft skills imported from other contexts (mainly from Taranto, but also from Epirus and Macedonia), in the acquisition of precious goods and items imported from exotic locations. The case study of the Athenaion of Castro, with the wealth of mostly unpublished evidence, can provide many useful points for discussion.

Grazia Semeraro (University of Salento), Methods and practices in studies of the economy of Messapia

The paper will discuss some aspects of archaeological research that allow to reconstruct the economic and relational framework of the Salento peninsula during the pre-Roman period.
1) Study of interaction and exchange. From quantitative analysis to the latest cognitive approaches, the research in this field led to a radical revision of the concepts traditionally used to describe the relationships and contacts with neighboring cultural systems (especially with the Greek world).
2) Settlements, landscapes, communities. The global approach to the study of the territory has allowed to reconstruct the development of settlement system over time. Numerous ongoing projects are aimed at reconstructing the cultural landscapes of the region, with specific attention to the human-environment relationship and the processes of definition and socio-political organization of local communities. Experimental archaeology and organization of individual and collective work.
3) Production and consumption of food. From the materiality of objects to their symbolic value in order to reconstruct the economic and social features related to production and distribution of agricultural resources. The contribution of archaeometry, social anthropology and ethnographic research. New projects on production and processing techniques of commodities (wheat, oil and wine).

Panel 3.10
(double)

Contextualizing craftsmanship in the ancient world: an "economic" sphere?

Day and Time:

Saturday | 26 May | 09:00-13:30

Organiser:

Mario Denti (Université Rennes 2)

Panel abstract

New methodological approaches and recent finds in archaeological and anthropological fields have been able to gradually soften the visions which limited (and often continue to do so) the craftsmanship sphere of the Ancient World to the exclusive field of the "production" and the "trade" for a long time – i.e., notions belonging to modernist economist conceptions. The critical conscience of the irreducibility and the complexity of the way of thinking of the Ancients, associated to the investigation of historical-political contexts and ideological-cultural elements in which the technological and craftsmanship activities were recorded, help us today to open new chapters on the way to the comprehension of a phenomenon in which not only the ritual sphere, but also requirements, culture and behaviors of the members of aristocracy, have played a role.

Paper abstracts

1.

Sandra Blakely (Emory University), Metallurgy between Myth and Production: cognized and operational craft in the Northeastern Aegean

What are the heuristic potentials for Rappaport’s cognized and operational models when applied to craft at the intersection of cutures – specifically iron metallurgy between Greeks and Thracians on the northeastern Aegean shores? And what are their implications for rethinking the ‘economic’ aspects of metal production? The southern Thracian shore was exceptionally rich in ores and local skills. Distinctions among local ores demanded different operational approaches to production; Kostoglou has used the material evidence to demonstrate that these operational models also constructed local community identities, among which production remained at the household and workshop level, even through the Roman period. Rappaport’s models help us recover some of the complexities in indigenous frameworks for the industry whose cultural function went far beyond production and trade. The Greek economic partners of these Thracians made both cosmological and ritual use of the daimones they constructed as the non-Greek, pre-Greek inventors of metallurgical craft in this region. The integration of these uses into our understanding of the evidence for emic, Thracian uses of metal production as a second level signifier helps move us toward a more complex model of that craft’s social function as simultaneously a locus of indigenous identity, and a means of enabling interaction with their non-Thracian economic partners in the region.

2.

Julien Zurbach (Ecole normale supérieure), Domestic vs commercial? Non-elite craftsmen between Mycenaean and Archaic times

This paper has two aims: by delineating the different forms of craft specialization in Late Bronze age Aegean communities, it should lead to the question of the continuities in that domain into later times; by examining the Homeric and Early archaic data on this topic it should lead to a questioning of the pertinence of the rigid distinction between the demiurgos on one side and the modest craftsmen of Greek city-states on the other side. By doing this, one would like to revise some current assumptions. Not every ‘specialization’ is linked to the palace in the LBA Aegean, on the contrary. A closer look at the economic condition of craftsmen shows the great variety of the forms of production preexisting to the palace, or existing without it. Notably, specialized communities are clearly attested. The question of the demiurgoi and through it the question of aristocratic control on production does not explain everything in Early Iron age and Homeric sources. One should also question the usual distinction between domestic and commercial or prestige production: is there really a sphere of domestic production and consumption completely separated from the rest? We will argue against that point of view.

3.

Despoina Tsiafaki ("Athena" Research Center), Crafts and craftsmanship within the societies of Northern Greece in Archaic times

The recent archaeological research conducted in the region of Northern Greece, has brought to light significant information regarding the societies living there along with their activities and networking. The material remains, witness of the production and consumption of the inhabitants, indicate on the one hand aspects of a local economy interrelated with other (neighboring or not) communities and economies; on the other hand they present their functions and meanings for the people (male and female) who produced, used, and consumed them in various places and times.
Pottery production appears to be among the principal crafts developed throughout the ancient Greek world in order to fulfill a great range of needs (household, daily, private, public, religious, cultural etc.). Their distribution then again reflects trade as well as relations or common behaviors. Furthermore, pots satisfied also the needs of other types of craftsmanship (e.g. smithing) that met an extended development in the region of Northern Greece.
Those types of crafts and craftsmanship within this geographical framework during the Archaic times, is the subject of the paper. All the above suggest an organization and a system within it they functioned. And this can be traced through their primary, secondary etc. depositional context or find spot.

4.

Mario Denti (Université Rennes 2), Craftsmanship and gentilitial empowerment in the South Italian Iron Age

The aim of this contribution is to understand the relationships between the craftsmanship activity and the construction of elite identities and hegemony in a main center of the South Italian Iron Age, Incoronata. Characterized by a mixed situation - potters Œnotrians and Greeks were working together during a century, from the end of the VIIIth to the end of the VIIth century B.C. - this site offers a crucial model for analyzing the mechanisms of a collective sharing of techniques, objects, rituals, imageries, and ideology between a non-Greek community dominating the Ionian coastal belt of Œnotria and an Aegean group of people and potters arriving here.
In a pre- (or para-) colonial historical context, the recent archaeological investigation of Rennes University enlighten us on the leading role played by the indigenous community in this process, on the importance of the creation of a common ("middle") ground for craftsmanship activities and ritual practices, in which the different communities encountered, as well as on the fundamental role of the ideological sphere, as a specific instrument for the social interaction and the construction of gentilitial identities : a phenomenon in which the "economic" sphere (as an autonomous and oriented activity) looks not to be able to be the key of understanding the complexity of local and international relationships of this world.

5.

Mathilde Villette (Université Rennes 2), Greeks and indigenous potters in a same craft-working area of the South Italian Iron Age

The analysis of the material culture associated with the study of the structures resulting from the pottery workshops provides a valuable indicator in the understanding of the craftmanship activity of the ancient societies. They allow, when the level of conservation of the remains makes it possible, to establish the technological choices adopted and to define the level of production of the workshop while questioning the destination of the production.
Remains of Iron Age pottery workshops discovered in southern Italy are tenuous, except for the site of the Incoronata (actual Basilicata), which offers the possibility of analyzing a ceramic workshop in its almost totality and over a time relatively long: between at least the second half of the 8th century BC and throughout the 7th century BC. The other peculiarity of this site is to welcome, around the end of the 8th century BC, greek craftsmen who come to work side by side with the indigenous craftpeople, without sharing their know-how.
In this paper, we will present the remains of the workshop through time and then, propose reflections about the "economic" sphere, namely the technological choices adopted, the level of production and the destination of production, in order to better understand the organization of the societies where the workshops take place and the nature of the contacts between Greek and indigenous (craftmen) of the Iron Age in south Italy.

6.

Katherine Harrington (Florida State University), Craft and Community: Social and Economic Adaptation in the Corinthian Potters’ Quarter

Corinthian fineware was widely exported in the 7th-6th c. BCE, and excavations in the Potters’ Quarter of the city have produced extensive evidence of production, including misfired pottery, kiln supports, water channels, and workshop buildings. Yet, demand for Corinthian pottery declined over time, and the Quarter underwent a drastic transformation in the mid-5th c. BCE when the rerouting of the city wall destroyed several buildings. This paper focuses on this later period of transformation, and in particular, on a 5th-4th c. BCE house and workshop, the Terracotta Factory, which produced figurines and miniature vessels long after other clay-workers had moved elsewhere. The building provides clear evidence of the ability of a crafting household to respond actively to changing social and economic circumstances. I argue that this workshop survived into the 4th c. by intentionally modifying their range of products to meet a local, rather than long-distance, market, while still drawing on traditional technical knowledge and established infrastructure. In addition, after the rerouting of the city wall several destroyed buildings became sites of unusual cult activity, in the form of small stele shrines installed on top of the abandoned structures. Similar shrines were found at several other ceramic workshops elsewhere in Corinth, as well as in the Terracotta Factory. The residents of the Terracotta Factory thus likely remained part of the larger community of ceramic craftspeople.

7.

Desirè Di Giuliomaria, The Roofing Decorative Systems in Rome during 6th c. BC: Dynamics between Monarchy and Craftsmanship

During the Archaic period, sacred and secular buildings in Rome, as well as in Etruria and Latium Vetus, were adorned with roofing decorative systems that conveyed images through acroteria, antefixes and friezes. Usually, scholars deal with the iconography and the general meaning of images, while scarce are the attempts to clarify who was the patron and why he commissioned those specific subjects. Focusing on Rome, the patron is probably the monarchy: during 6th c. BC, at least three kings succeeded one another to the throne. They are referred by sources having different behaviours. Without inspecting into ancient literature, through the analysis of images, it is possible to unveil the socio-political orders then in force. Different personalities are distinguishable behind the craftsmanship of architectural terracottas, in the choice of subjects to depict and workshops to employ. Furthermore, some of those Roman systems spread out in cities of neighbouring, allied or subjugated to Rome. Thus, an issue arises: was still the king who commissioned the embellishment of buildings with the images of own self-representation in those centres, or some cities just wanted to imitate the Urbe, employing same workshops and matrices? This new approach to the Roman context could begin a new address of research to understand better the dynamics between political order and craftsmanship. I hope my speech will stimulate a fervid debate.

8.

Elisabeth Günther (Freie Universität Berlin), Economic strategies and their frames of references: The case of the Paestan Asteas-Python-workshop

An extraordinary workshop of potters and painters can be found in the Greek colony Paestum in the 4th century BC: The Asteas-Python-workshop, being active for around 5 decades and producing an impressive amount of vase-paintings. However, the economic strategies of this workshop have not been explored yet. The main painters Asteas and Python (both the only signing painters in South Italy) collaborated with numerous nameless “associates”, who were closely related in respect of style. The huge output of this workshop as well as the wide span of products between (supposed) commissions and mass-products, which were based on the use of templates, the choice of different shapes and the varying complexity of the images make it a unique example to explore the organization of the workshop as well as the interdependencies of economy, product design and iconography. In addition, the images themselves reflect values of behavior as well as a deep interest in the Dionysian circle. Thus, the creation of vessel and painting are not only dominated by economic needs but reflect a complex bundle of socio-cultural frames. This paper aims to disentangle the economic, aesthetic, sociocultural and religious frameworks of the Asteas-Python-workshop, and to combine iconographic analysis with the find contexts in Paestum and Pontecagnano, therewith shedding light on both producers and recipients as the two sides of a not exclusively economic relationship.

Panel 3.11
(triple)

Salt, fish processing and amphorae production across the Mediterranean in the 1st millennium BC. An overview of the technological and economic interactions.

Day and Time:

Wednesday | 23 May | 09:00-16:30

Organisers:

Enrique García-Vargas,  Francisco José García Fernandez and Antonio Sáez Romero
(University of Seville)

Speakers:

  1. Sónia Gabriel (Direcção Geral do Património Cultural)
    Fish and fishing in the Western Mediterranean: species, techniques and trends
  2. Dimitra Mylona (INSTAP Study Center for East Crete)
    Fish and fishing in the Eastern Mediterranean: species, techniques and trends
  3. Emmanuel Botte (CNRS-AMU, Centre Camille Jullian)
    Salt-fish production and trade across the Mediterranean
  4. Tønnes Bekker-Nielsen (University of Southern Denmark)
    Salt-fish production and trade in Greece and the Black Sea
  5. Maria Teresa Soria Trastoy (Universidad de Cadiz)
    Fisheries and salted fish in Ptolemaic Egypt: A state of the art
  6. Enrique Garcia Vargas (University of Seville)
    Salt works and tuna traps across the Mediterranean in the 1st millennium BC.
  7. Solène Chevalier (Ecole pratique des hautes études)
    Salt, productive activities and land occupation. An overview of the Tyrrhenian archaeological situation at the beginning of the 1st millenium BC.
  8. Edoardo Vanni (University of Siena)
    Searching for Salt in Italian Peninsula Mobility and exploitation of Salt from Final Bronze Age to Early Iron Age
  9. Antonio Sáez Romero (University of Seville)
    Amphorae and kiln sites in Southern Iberia Peninsula and northern Mauritania
  10. Horacio Gonzalez Cesteros (Austrian Academy of Sciences)
    Alfred Galik Fish-resources exploitation and commerce in the Aegean in Hellenistic and early Roman times. The case of Ephesus.
  11. Darío Bernal-Casasola (Universidad de Cádiz)
    Roman fishing strategies in the Western Mediterranean. Sardines, Mackerel and tuna at Gades (Olivillo Project)
  12. Carolina Megale (University of Florence)
    The cetaria of Caius Caecina Largus at Populonia
  13. Rafael M. Rodríguez (Pontevedra County Council)
    New consumption in the Northwest Hispanic from the anphoric remains located in indigenous contexts of the Rías Baixas, 1st millennium BC
  14. Darío Bernal-Casasola (Universidad de Cádiz)
    The transition to the Roman Era. Salt-fish and amphorae production and trade in the Mediterranean during the 2nd-1st centuries BC.

External
Discussants:


Carlos Fabiao (Universidade de Lisboa) and Roald Docter (Ghent University)

Panel abstract

The processing of fish resources into marketable commodities and the production of transport amphorae for their distribution were economic activities developed in almost all corners of the Mediterranean in early stages of Antiquity, although more widely known for the imperial Roman times. However, for several decades the study of the archaeological evidence connected to the Greek and Phoenician-Punic worlds has made it possible to demonstrate on a material basis what was in principle only an intuition: that these activities played a prominent role in the Mediterranean economies of the 1st millennium BC. Thus, long before Rome became a key power the fish-processing for consumption and its exportation packaged in amphorae was an important factor not only from the perspective of food supply but also linked to the interaction of technological and mercantile spheres between the main socio-cultural Mediterranean areas.

So far, the analysis of ancient fishing, salted-fish and salt production or the manufacture of transport amphorae have been addressed in a compartmentalized way. This has resulted in a lesser amount of attention being paid on the fluid technological and commercial connections that would had taken place between different regions and cultures, particularly significant from the consolidation of the Phoenician and Greek colonization processes in the central and western Mediterranean between the 8th and 6th centuries BC. The main objective is therefore to reconnect these unrelated processes, cultures and regions, and also explore how these technologies were disseminated among the local communities shaken by the phenomenon of colonial expansion and its subsequent development, modifying the systems of production and exchange of foodstuffs from the Atlantic to the Eastern Mediterranean.

This session proposes an integrated discussion of the state of the art on fisheries, salt production, the manufacture of salted fish by-products, amphorae and, in general, ceramic manufacture technologies on the Phoenician-Punic and Greek worlds during the 1st millennium BC. The panel has been conceived as a framework for updating information on typologies, influences, products, quantifying, technological and economic transfers, chaînes opérationnelles, trade routes or even experimental archeology trials. The main goal is to provide an up-to-date overview of these issues for the entire Mediterranean basin, taking into account significant case studies, as well as to reflect on the diachronic evolution of these activities and their structural transformations during the initial phase of expansion of Republican Rome.

Paper abstracts

1.

Sónia Gabriel (Direcção Geral do Património Cultural), Fish and fishing in the Western Mediterranean: species, techniques and trends

The Archaeological record displays interesting information about fish and fishing in the Roman world. Using different sets of evidence, I will discuss fish and fishing in the Western Mediterranean, illustrating how, by and large, they relate to fish-salting industry, dietary fashion and seafood consumption.

2.

Dimitra Mylona (INSTAP Study Center for East Crete), Fish and fishing in the Eastern Mediterranean: species, techniques and trends

Fish processing in Mediterranean antiquity was part of a broader fishing system that provided the raw materials to fish salting industry but also had shaped consumers' tastes and ideas about the various types of fish and fish products. This presentation will review the fishing in Eastern Mediterranean in the 1st millenium BC. with emphasis on the exploited species and the fishing techniques used. It will highlight particular features and trends which were crucial for the development and diffusion of fish preservation. Among the issues that will be discussed are the nature of the Eastern Mediterranean fish resources, the types of fishing grounds most commonly exploited and the way fishing technology affected the type and size of catch.

3.

Enrique Garcia Vargas and Antonio Saez Romero (University of Seville) - Emmanuel Botte (CNRS-AMU, Centre Camille Jullian), Salt-fish production and trade across the Mediterranean

Since ancient times several areas of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea were outlined because of their fishing wealth and the existence of flourishing businesses based on the manufacture and trade of salted fish by-products, including some cities that reached an international fame (Byzantium, Panormos, Gadir). Great debates have marked the scientific historiography about the origins, diffusion, characteristics and importance of the "industrial fishing” and the consumption of products derived from it (the best known, garum). In spite of the great interest aroused by these questions in the last decades, the origin of this activity, attributed to Greeks and Phoenicians is still far from being fully clarified. In the same way, the discussion about the rise of processed fish production in the first half of the 1st millennium BC remains open (fishing as a sustenance activity?). In the Classical Period salted fish became a luxury food (some categories) and then opened to a wider range of consumers during Hellenism. Other discussions are also active, such as the local or regional recipes for these salted fish and sauces, the supplying for salt, the quantification of the volume of product generated or the relationship of their transport with specific amphorae types. The interest on these issues has so far been uneven, so this paper offers a general overview of the development of "industry" throughout the 1st millennium BC in the Mediterranean area.

4.

Tønnes Bekker-Nielsen (University of Southern Denmark), Salt-fish production and trade in Greece and the Black Sea

Salt fish was imported into the Aegean at least as early as the fifth century BC if not before, but to judge from the remains of industrial installations, the apogee of the Pontic salt-fish trade was not reached until the first and or early second century AD. This paper will explore, first, the state of our present knowledge and the evidence upon which it is based; second, the dynamics behind the expansion of the fish processing industry: was it driven by supply (an abundance of fish in the Black Sea) or by demand (rising demand for processed fish in Greece and beyond); third, its socio-economic context: was fish processing a rare example of entrepreneurial capitalism in the ancient world, or embedded in a system of exchange controlled by a landowning elite?

5.

Maria Teresa Soria Trastoy (Universidad de Cadiz), Fisheries and salted fish in Ptolemaic Egypt: A state of the art

We present the state of art of fisheries during the Ptolemaic period within the context of the I millennium B.C. and within the geographical space that includes Egypt and the Syrian-Palestinian Corridor, taking into account the data provided by the archaeological record, literary, documentary, linguistic and epigraphic sources, as well as iconographic and ethnographic
sources.
Fishing activities were developed in marine, fluvial, lacustrine and palustrine environmental frameworks. The archaeological record allows us to define part of the fishing tackle and the methods of capture used, although we have a limited number of materials, some decontextualized and others of doubtful chronological adscription (Late to Greco-Roman Period). The technological breakthroughts that take place, the tradition, innovations and variations suffered in them during this period can be recognized thanks to the classification of the methods of capture and typologies of the fishing tackle that we have previously proposed.
The 1st millennium BC is the best documented period of ancient Egypt. Through accounting documents, correspondence and other matters collected in papyri, we can know the organization and regulation fisheries, some of the methods of capture, professional organizations, distribution routes of the products, or their costs.
Capture, regardless of the medium in which it took place, were processed immediately for their preservation and subsequent consumption. Drying is the most common method, though Egypt was well known for its salted fish since Pharaonic times, both dry and wet salted (brine), which was preserved, transported and commercialized, inside and outside Egypt, in ceramic jars and
amphorae. The earliest evidence for the production of freshwater wet-salted fish in the Nile valley comes from Kerma, in the context dated between 800 and 400 B.C. In Pelusium, today Tell Farama, within the industrial area and in the same sector where evidence of purple production was found, are several buckets that could have been part of a saltery complex. In the Red Sea, no evidence has yet been found.

6.

Enrique Garcia Vargas (University of Seville), Salt works and tuna traps across the Mediterranean in the 1st millennium BC.

Traditionally, tuna traps and the production of salt have been closely related. The massive capture of tuna in the Atlantic and Mediterranean fisheries must be followed by immediate measures to preserve the product, and historically salt has played a fundamental role in this. The migration routes of the fish, the fisheries and the salt-production areas became, alongside fishermen’s villages, the features of a characteristic, and relatively homogeneous from the technological and economic perspectives, ‘coastal landscape’. Our contribution aims to examine the literary, epigraphical and archaeological record in order to rebuild this landscape diachronically, throughout the 1st millennium BC, between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Atlantic.

7.

Solène Chevalier (Ecole pratique des hautes études), Salt, productive activities and land occupation. An overview of the Tyrrhenian archaeological situation at the beginning of the 1st millenium BC.

In 1991, M. Pacciarelli proposed comparing the italian remains of a productive coastal activity with the celtic ateliers de briquetage. Since then, all recurring discoveries in the Central part of the Tyrrhenian Coast are interpreted as indicators of salt fabrics set between the Medium Bronze Age and the Orientalizing Period. A methodical study of the archaeological corpus suggests that these interpretations are not always reliable and that the existence of a mixed activity should be considered further, avoiding parallels with the Celtic workshops. This paper proposes to highlight the local technical expertise of these Italian sites which undergo their decline as metallurgy develops on the Tyrrhenian Coast. This chronological interruption will also be explored and compared with Spanish and French archaeological records. Simultaneously with the rise of metallurgy and the decline of salt a/o mixed littoral activities, the development of harbour sites indicates a coastal and maritime economical mutation during the VII BC. This study of characteristically productive coastal sites includes a wider analysis of settlement modalities between the Bronze Age and the Archaic Time which highlights the central role of these areas and their precocity. The collection of the productive and coastal settlements seems to suggest an organization through geographic sectors which precede the setting up of the city-states territories.

8.

Edoardo Vanni (University of Siena), Searching for Salt in Italian Peninsula Mobility and exploitation of Salt from Final Bronze Age to Early Iron Age

The Archaeology of Salt has been considered by then as a strong field of study with specific methodologies and issues, thanks especially to numerous research run in Continental and Atlantic milieu. Regarding the techniques involved in the production of salt in Antiquity it has been already challenged by then the fact that in hot climates, the production of salt was made exclusively by evaporation of water. Conversely the extraction of salt blocks obtained by cooking the salt into boiling pots, well-documented in Continental and Atlantic contexts, has been recorded archaeologically in several Mediterranean sites. In Italy this technique seems to be practiced mainly during the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age especially in Central Coastal Etruria. What are the economic and social premises for the spread of this phenomenon? Is there a correlation with the birth of the major Etruscan centers? Who detain the control of these resources? For what purpose the salt blocks were produced? My assumption is that there is a link between mobility strategies (e.g. transhumance) and salt production in Etruria. First of all salt consumption increased first and foremost to preserved meats and other animal product and it may be necessary to provide addition salt to animal diet. Moreover the salt could have been reduced in blocks to facilitate its transportation for long-distance trade. It is not only a speculation the fact that the shepherds were involved in the production of salt blocks.

9.

Francisco José García Fernandez and Antonio Sáez Romero (University of Seville), Amphorae and kiln sites in Southern Iberia Peninsula and northern Mauritania

This is an essential research line for the reconstruction of the regional economy of the 1st millennium BCE, at its peak in the last two decades, but that nevertheless is developed in a very asymmetrical form in the diverse interconnected settlements in the area. On the one hand, since the arrival of the Phoenicians the production of transport amphorae was constant and there is a rich bibliography concerning the typological evolution of the containers and the characteristics and location of the kilns in sites such as the Bay of Cadiz and Malaga's coastline. On the other hand, there are sites or areas with a smaller development of the research, or where arbitrary reasons have resulted in less information about their amphorae forms or pottery production infrastructures (such as the southwest coast of Iberia, the Guadalquivir Valley or Carteia, to cite a few examples). Finally, it is possible to recognize a third set of zones in which the investigation of these issues is still very embryonic, with little information available on the amphorae types or its manufacturing centers (for instance, the rest of the eastern coast of Andalusia, or of the north of present-day Morocco). In any case, it is evident that the production of amphorae was a very widespread and important activity both in the port hubs and in the main river valleys, facilitating trade in many products such as olive oil, wine and especially salted fish.

10.

Horacio Gonzalez Cesteros (Austrian Academy of Sciences) and Alfred Galik (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften), Fish-resources exploitation and commerce in the Aegean in Hellenistic and early Roman times. The case of Ephesus.

Ancient writers relate the richness of western Anatolia in several natural resources. Among them, the exploitation of the sea products seems to be had played a special role since prehistoric times. It is well-known the catch of the big banks of tuna and other migratory fishes in the north part of the eastern Aegean in their way to and from the Black Sea, but fish practices were not only limited to this part of the region and to this kind of fishes. Ephesus provides us some of the best examples of the exploitation of fish and other maritime resources in the Hellenistic and Roman periods, but also for the import of fish products from other production regions.
In this presentation we aim to make a multidisciplinary approach to the exploitation and consume of maritime resources from three different case studies. First, the analysis of archaeozoological remains, an archaeological well-stablished discipline in Ephesus. Second, the contribution of material studies, above all amphorae studies, indispensable for the understanding of the arrival of fish products imported from the whole Mediterranean and Black Sea areas. Third, present the evolution of the coastal line and Ephesian coastal landscape for a correct interpretation of the fish exploitation possibilities. Last, for a broader approach is essential to connect the archaeological evidence with the significant epigraphical evidence and numerous literary sources.

11.

Darío Bernal-Casasola - Ricard Marlasca - Jose M. Vargas - Jose A. Retamosa (Universidad de Cádiz), Roman fishing strategies in the Western Mediterranean. Sardines, Mackerel and tuna at Gades (Olivillo Project)

In the last decades several models of fishing exploitation in the Western Mediterranean have been proposed, based on documented icthyo-archaeological evidence from fish-salting plants and from markets and consumer contexts. In addition to a perennial local fishery for self-consumption, it has been argued that the industrial fishing of tuna and mackerel, which has been active since the republican era, gradually gave way to catches of smaller fish, especially clupeids, due to the exhaustion or pressure of fishing grounds, mainly from the 3rd c. AD.
Recent archaeological excavations in Gades (El Olivillo project), undertaken by the University of Cadiz, have documented a halieutic Testaccio near the harbour generated as a result of waste discharges from the fishing-canning activity; in which tunas, sardines and mackerels dating back to the Augustan period and the I c. AD appear together in big quantities. Together with other indicators in the Fretum Gaditanum, it is possible to propose a much more complex and varied exploitation strategy, attributing methodological and partly fortuitous questions to the absence of tuna in Late Antiquity and that of sardines at the beginning of the imperial era. And putting on the table the need to have a larger archaeological sample than the currently available, still insufficient, to be able to propose models.

12.

Carolina Megale (University of Florence), The cetaria of Caius Caecina Largus at Populonia

The Roman settlement of Poggio del Molino was built on a strip of land not far from the city of Populonia, the port and the main roads. This strategic location (with different purposes at different times) has made Poggio del Molino a multilayered site, continuously inhabited from late Republican times to the beginning of the Middle Ages.
Before becoming a maritime villa, in the Augustan age the complex was used as a farm, with an area for the production of fish sauce; the farm was built on top of a late Republican structure displaying with the features of a defensive building.
The Augustan fish-sauce factory consisted of at least ten salting vats, eight of which are square in shape. They are lined in pairs across from alongside another rectangular vat, larger in size and depth.
The discovery - inside a hypogeum room which was abandoned at the time - of a betica amphora with titulo picto indicating the recipient of the container, gives us the name of the owner of the farm and the fish sauce factory: Caio Caecina Largo, of the gens Caecina, from the Etruscan city of Volterra.
The discovery of the amphora with the name of the owner and the research at the cetaria in Poggio del Molino provide a significant contribution to our knowledge of one of the major economic activities in the territory of Populonia in the early imperial age.

13.

Rafael M Rodríguez and  Diego Piay Augusto (Pontevedra County Council), New consumption in the Northwest Hispanic from the anphoric remains located in indigenous contexts of the Rías Baixas, 1st millennium BC

During the excavations promoted by Pontevedra Provincial Council during the years 2015, 2016 and 2017 in several sites of the Rías Baixas, an important volume of amphoric remains was documented that allow an approach to the introduction of new foods and new guidelines Of food consumption from the fourth century BC ..
In the present study, an analysis of the amphoric typologies documented in archaeological sites dating from the first millennium BC will be carried out, after which conclusions will be drawn on the eating habits of the peninsular northwest, based on the known data for these amphorae.

14.

Darío Bernal-Casasola (Universidad de Cádiz), The transition to the Roman Era. Salt-fish and amphorae production and trade in the Mediterranean during the 2nd-1st centuries BC.

Closing the panel "Salt, fish processing and amphorae production across the Mediterranean in the 1st millennium BC. An overview of the technological and economic interactions", some ideas and recent working topics between II - I c. BC will be presented, in order to stimulate the interdisciplinary and to discuss research lines for the next future. The technological Roman innovations will be highlighted, as well as the new archeological evidente in the last decade or archaeological work, mainly focused in Hispania.

Panel 3.12

Pre-modern Industrial Districts

Day and Time:

Saturday | 26 May | 14:30-16:30

Organisers:

Michael Herdick, Angelika Hunold and Holger Schaaff
(Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum)

Panel abstract

The ancient quarrying and mining district of the Eastern Eifel has been the subject of research by the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum since 1997. Over the years, mining techniques, production of and trade in the valuable volcanic rocks, and settlement structures have all been investigated in detail. The products – primarily basalt lava millstones, tuffstone building material, and pottery – were extensively traded throughout much of Europe for centuries. A research programme named „The origin and formation of an industrial landscape – the ancient quarrying and mining district between the Eifel and the Rhine" was launched to examine the wealth of evidence about the ancient mining economy in the region and its significance for the political establishment of Rome north of the Alps. A series of individual studies contributed to the subject, among them several doctoral theses. The programme was accompanied by the development of the Vulkanpark Osteifel, which received twice an Europa Nostra Award for the valuation of this outstanding industrial heritage. The archaeological research falls into four categories: - the stone industry (basalt, tuffstone, pumice) - the economic centre of Mayen - the pottery production - the rural area. These categories engage with each other and as a whole they allow a full understanding of the district's significance. Currently, the project is completed except research on the pottery production which is just in its final phase. Experimental archaeology, too, continues to investigate the potter's production conditions. Another aspect which has lead to further studies is the waterway transport of the heavy goods. Being an industrial district of supraregional importance, the quarrying and mining district of the Eastern Eifel turned out an excellent case study for pre-modern industrial districts in general. So it provided a model how to study ancient industries: In a long-term view and with a holistic approach, that means taking into account economic, social and settlement aspects. As a consequence, pre-modern industrial districts were integrated into the research field „Wirtschaft und Technik" at the RGZM as a subject of further research. Looking for a comparable district, we started to investigate the ancient pottery centre of Speicher near Trier. It was most likely in a way connected to the Late Roman Imperial residence and therefore offers quite different interesting aspects for research.

Paper abstracts

1.

Angelika Hunold (RGZM), The ancient quarrying and mining district between the Eifel and the Rhine - a summary of research

The ancient quarrying and mining district between the Eifel and the Rhine – a summary of research
The ancient quarrying and mining district of the Eastern Eifel has been the subject of research by the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum in Mainz and Mayen since 1997. The products – primarily basalt lava millstones, tuffstone building material, and pottery – were extensively traded throughout much of Europe for many centuries.
An extensive research programme was launched to examine the wealth of evidence about the ancient mining economy in the region and its significance for the political establishment of Rome north of the Alps. A series of individual studies contributed to the subject, among them several doctoral theses. They engage with each other and as a whole they allow a full understanding of the district’s significance.
Being an industrial district of supraregional importance, the district of the Eastern Eifel turned out an excellent case study for the investigation of pre-modern industrial districts in general. So it provided a model for studying ancient industries: In a long-term view and with a holistic approach, that means taking into account mining techniques, production and trade, but also social aspects and settlement structures. As a consequence, pre-modern industrial districts were integrated into the research field „Wirtschaft und Technik“ at the RGZM as a subject of further research.

2.

Lutz Grunwald - Sibylle Friedrich (RGZM), Pottery production for the european market – the Roman and Medieval potter’s workshops of Mayen and Weißenthurm

The ceramic produced in Mayen belongs to one of the „index fossils„ of archaeological investigation, not only for the late Antique, but also for the Middle Ages. Focusing on the local pottery workshops and clay deposits in Mayen, this paper presents the „Mayener Ware“ and also gives a summary of ceramic production in the area of the confluence of the Mosel and Rhine Rivers from the 1st to 14th centuries AD. Based on new distribution maps, it is possible to reassess the distribution of the Mayen vessels during the late Antique and Carolingian Period. Furthermore, due to the amount of exports, it is possible to theorize that the trade and export to the key markets was state regulated.
In Weißenthurm during the Roman Period, there was a surparegional production center for high-quality coarse ceramic. Its appearance and workmanship differ from other contemporary pottery, which makes the so-called Urmitzer Wares easy to recognize at other archaeological sites. Even today the Urmitzer Wares are used as a chronological “index fossil” for the so-called Niederbieber Horizon. However, new research has shown that the chronological timespan is much broader than previously thought, and the creation of a geochemical-mineralogical database makes it now possible to determine the export region. Even the exclusiveness of the production center in Weißenthurm has now been called into question.

3.

Gregor Döhner - Michael Herdick (RGZM), Technical-historical Comparison of Pottery Districts: Desiderata and Experimental Archaeological Research Prospects

In spite of innumerable firings with reconstructed Antique and Medieval pottery kilns, there is still no transparent production data from kilns of different epochs from any major ceramic production center in Europe. There is an underlying deficiency of in-depth investigations of archaeological pottery kiln complexes; research into the available raw clay resources, its preparation and final composition of the prepared clay is often neglected. From a ceramic technological point of view, the kilns and the wares fired in them must be seen and analyzed as a single technological system. The type of vessel with its specific requirements, such as how they were stacked and fired, is just as influential for the production process as the construction of the kiln itself. A technological assessment of a kiln construction is not feasible, without first taking into account the process of the specific pottery being produced.
At the RGZM Lab for Experimental Archaeology, experimental archaeological research is being carried out that focuses on the technical history of the Mayen pottery center. Using this research as an example, we would like to present how such trendsetting investigation models could look like. The starting point of the project, which started in 2014, is an experimental archaeological evaluation of a Late Antique shaft kiln, as well as the accompanying studies of the material resources of the Mayen potteries.

4.

Stefan Wenzel (RGZM), Transport of heavy loads on inland waterways

The river Nette connected the Roman quarry and mining district around Mayen with the important waterway of the Rhine. Starting from the Nette the arguments are presented which speak for the use also of other small water courses for heavy load transport in Antiquity. In this context special reference is given to the distribution of Roman workshops, storehouses and funerary monuments along small rivers.

5.

Holger Schaaff (RGZM), Archaeology of unimagined dimensions - the roman potteries of Speicher and Herforst

In archaeology it has been known for at least 150 years that between Speicher and Herforst in Roman times there existed a pottery centre of European importance. At that place, enormous quantities of pottery were produced from the 2nd to the 5th centuries. A walk through forest and fields still reveals the dimensions of production. The uneven ground, stone accumulations and masses of ceramic sherds show that the potteries lie very close to the surface. Over time, more than 30 larger workshop complexes were discovered, each of them consisting of several buildings, ceramic furnaces and clay pits, spread over an area of more than 2,5 km2.
However because of its large extension, the pottery centre despite many find observations and excavations never could be examined comprehensively. Therefore, an association of archaeologists from Landesarchäologie Trier, Frankfurt University and Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Mainz now want to investigate the potteries with state-of-the-art methods. They receive great support from the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute in Vienna, sending specialists for geophysical surveys.
The aim is to finally appreciate the international significance of these large Roman enterprises. A start has already been made: First geophysical investigations as well as a test excavation show very promising results. Obviously the pottery centre was even larger than we thought it was.

Panel 3.13

The rise of bling: charting the incredible increase in the consumption of decorative metal objects in the Roman Empire

Day and Time:

Saturday | 26 May | 14:30-16:30

Organiser:

Stefanie Hoss (Universität zu Köln)

Panel abstract

The mass production and consumption of metal objects - and especially of metal objects that were decorative but not essential, such as statuettes, furniture fittings, tableware and decorative parts of dress as well as jewellery – is one of the major differences between the Roman Empire and the periods preceding and following it.
The reason for this is a fairly straightforward one, namely the increase in availability of the raw materials, in part due to new mining techniques, but also due to the increased access to mines that was the result of the spread of Roman control.
Another characteristic is the extremely wide dissemination of these items both in terms of distance as well as in terms most often described as social class or wealth.
This panel seeks to clarify the systems of production and distribution that enabled this phenomenon in order to better understand the mechanisms of cultural supply and demand that form the basis for this ‘explosion’ of metal production during the Roman period.
For this purpose, we would like to invite papers that chart the production and distribution of specific (groups of) objects within the Roman Empire, for instance a particular type of brooch (fibula), inkwell or knife handle.
Other papers welcome would describe the cultural circumstances through which these things suddenly become ‘necessary’, such as the rise of toilet implements described for Britain by H. Eckhardt and N. Crummy (Styling the Body in Late Iron Age and Roman Britain. A contextual approach to toilet instruments, Montagnac 2008).
While the panel would best slot with session 3 (systems of production), it will also address elements of the sessions 5 on distribution and 6 on consumption.

Paper abstracts

1.

Mikhail Treister (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut), The Gold of Phanagoria (Bosporan Kingdom): a complex archaeo-metallurgical study

The paper is devoted to the study of the gold objects from the excavations and chance finds of ancient Phanagoria, the Asian capital of the Bosporan Kingdom. These are ca. 300 individual finds and groups of objects, dating from the late 4th century BC to the 5th century AD (ca. 5% of all burials yielded gold objects), with the peak of the use in the burial rite from the late 2nd century BC to the first half of the 2nd century AD. Examined are various types of funeral (diadems, wreaths, buckles, ghost money) and real jewelry (necklaces, torcs, earrings, bracelets, finger-rings). There were made 284 RFX-analyses of 164 objects, 67 samples were studied optically. The composition of gold was also studied with electron probe microanalyzers. There were also studied the technology of manufacture of the majority of artefacts. There will be discussed in their dynamics: the balance between the “real” and funeral gold objects, the correlation of the types of gold objects and burial constructions, the problem whether (when) gold items were the markers of the elite burials, the questions of imports and local (Bosporan, Phanagorian) manufacture, as well as origin of metal, its composition and technological issues. Such a complex approach enables for the first time reconstructing the history of gold manufacture and consumption of one of the most important centers of the North Pontic area.

2.

Espen B. Andersson, Keeping cash in Roman cities

To accumulate greater amounts of cash money and other valuables, the Romans used, both public and private, a money chest called arca, or arca ferrata. These strongboxes had lock systems of high technical standard, and displayed outstanding artistic quality in decoration. To anybody passing by them, alone their visual appearance signalized capital resources in abundance.
A cassaforte was not a part of every Roman house. This is reflected in the archaeological material where only approx. ten cassaforte are known to date. On the other hand, bronze appliqués found at different sites may indicate that this number will increase.
In Italy, the largest group of cassaforte comes from Campania, above all from Pompeii. These examples are important because they are found in situ. The panic through the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD, lead to that most of the cassaforte was left empty. It is possible though, based on what some volcano victims were carrying, to suggest the average sums of sestertii that supposedly were kept in the cassaforte.
That the cassaforte remained where they stood, gives an opportunity to understand more in detail the possible roles of this cash keeping in the city.
The interesting question is what the cassaforte may tell us from the distribution of them; - these monuments not seen in isolation - but viewed in a broad urban perspective.

3.

Courtney Ward, Bling It On: Metal Jewellery and Identity on Display in Roman Campania

Jewellery and personal adornment were integral to the creation of identity in the Roman world. Men and women of all social and economic classes wore these objects on a daily basis and as such they formed a fundamental part of Roman life. Literary and epigraphic evidence shows the social importance of jewellery and personal adornment in the Roman Empire. Often these sources associate jewellery with wealth and social rank; however, the archaeological evidence underscores a much broader picture of jewellery use in the Roman world. This paper will examine jewellery finds from the Bay of Naples in order to discuss what the differences in materials, composition and jewellery types can tell us about the sex, age and socio-economic status of its wearer, and how jewellery was used by its ancient owners in the creation of diverse gender identities. Jewellery was produced in the same form or style for different budgets, with items constructed of solid and intricately decorated gold for the wealthy, while a similar form was constructed with little to no detail in less expensive gold foil for those less affluent. This paper will illustrate how jewellery, a necessity for the creation and display of diverse gender identities, was employed by men and women from varying economic and social backgrounds in the first century AD.

4.

Josy Luginbühl (Universität Bern), Young ladies with their writing equipment. Indications of literacy in Roman Tombs

The Romans introduced reading and writing on a larger scale to their provinces, which is recognizable by the increasing numbers of mostly Latin monumental inscriptions, graffiti and legal documents. As the writing equipment is essential to writing, it was distributed similarly to these testimonies. Hence including stili, inkpots and wax-spatulas, which were widely spread throughout the Roman Empire.
As grave goods they were found in the sepulchre of children, men in military service or more interestingly of young women who died before marriage. To all of them writing seemed to be important, as they all ran through the Roman system of education.
Fortunately this writing gear can be linked through their position in a tomb to a specific person and we are able to draw conclusions about the abilities of the person in question and the spread of literacy throughout the empire and the social hierarchy.
Furthermore these writing utensils are an evidence of trade. Especially inkwells in their varied forms and diverse materials can be assigned to a precise place of production and from there retrace their steps to the places they were excavated in the first place.
In this paper the beneficiaries of the Roman education system will be traced by a study of the distribution of the utensils in question.

5.

Boris Alexander Nikolaus Burandt (Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität), Transformationsprozesse von Tausch- und Gebrauchswerten römischer Fanartikel im Kontext der Gladiatur und Wagenrennen

Rom brachte die erste eigentliche Unterhaltungsindustrie der Geschichte hervor. Rund um die munera etablierte sich ein Wirtschaftszweig, der mit Memorabilia Umsätze schuf. Gladiatoren und Wagenlenker wurden auf Öllampen und Trinkbechern, Messergriffen oder als Tonstatuetten verewigt und in hoher Stückzahl unter das Volk gebracht. Den Funden obliegt im 1. Jh. noch ein erkennbarer Gebrauchswert, der sich durch den praktischen Nutzen definiert. So dient etwa ein Messer in erster Linie dazu, Dinge zu zerteilen, oder ein Becher dazu Flüssigkeiten aufzunehmen, ebenso wie die Lampe den Raum erhellen soll. Die figürliche Gestaltung ist sekundär. Das gewählte Fertigungsmaterial ist stets preiswert. Es erscheint logisch, dass sich der Tauschwert primär durch den Gebrauchswert ergibt. Mit dem 2. Jh. treten neben diese Objekte auch Fanartikel deutlich höherer Qualität, wie z. B. individualisierte figurative Darstellungen in Elfenbein, Bernstein und Buntmetall. Vielen dieser Stücke ruht kein praktischer Gebrauchswert inne, es handelt sich um Nippes, der keine weitere Funktion erfüllt, denn als dekoratives Element Räume zu verschönern. Es kommt also parallel zu einer Veränderung des Gebrauchs- sowie des Tauschwertes. Mit dem Wechsel von billigen Materialien wie Ton und Blei hin zu Stoffen mit einem implizit hohen Tauschwert, wie Edelmetall, ist ein Wandel des Tauschwertes klar vollzogen. Doch ändert sich hierdurch auch der Gebrauchswert? Reicht es ab dem 2. Jh. aus, schlicht Ding zu sein?

Panel 3.14
(double)

“CRAFT ECONOMY” AND TERRACOTTA FIGURINES
Approaching systems of production through coroplastic studies

Day and Time:

Wednesday | 23 May | 09:00-13:30

Organisers:

Stephanie Huysecom-Haxhi (CNRS-HALMA - Univ. Lille3)
Antonella Pautasso (CNR-IBAM)

External
Discussant:


Jaimee Uhlenbrock (University of New York)

Panel abstract

Since the first discoveries of the nineteenth century, the coroplastic research has undergone a remarkable evolution. For a long time considered as trinkets, and therefore studied mainly from the point of view of the history of art, terracotta figurines are now studied and published scientifically, according to specific methods of analysis and integrated approaches. Particular attention has been paid in the last twenty years to production techniques and to the reconstruction of the operational sequence, as well as to the human factor behind the crafted object. Archaeologists also have had the benefit of several ethno-anthropological studies that provide thought-provoking theoretical frameworks for an understanding of the economic and social dimensions of craft production in antiquity. The economic approach to coroplastic production encompasses different aspects, such as: — The acquisition and the processing of the clay. — The techniques, sequences and organization of the production. — Trade, diffusion and distribution. — Demand or consumption and their effect on the production. The proposed panel aims to discuss the economic and social facets of the coroplastic production through some examples addressing one or more of the abovementioned aspects and concerning the Greek world from the Archaic to the Hellenistic period.

Paper abstracts

1.

Rebecca Miller Ammerman (Colgate University, New York), Toward the Study of the Production of Figured Terracottas from Local Clays at Metaponto

The paper presents an overview of studies conducted on the clays and ceramic materials from two sites of ceramic production at Metaponto. The research aims to locate the sources of clay at each site — Sant Angelo Vecchio and Pantanello — and to identify, in a systematic manner, the properties of the clays. At the same time, the clays are compared to the ceramic fabrics of objects found and produced at each site. The comparative study focuses on several questions. First, to what extent do the fired fabrics differ from the raw clays? Second, what is the degree of variation between the clays found at different sites in the region? Third, to what extent do the fabrics vary between different kinds of ceramic materials, ranging from roof tiles to terracotta figurines? In effect, we have undertaken a methodological study whose aim is to develop a more comprehensive approach to understanding the exploitation of local clays in the production of a full range of ceramic materials including figured terracottas.

2.

Antonella Pautasso (IBAM-CNR) - Vanessa Chillemi - Ambra Pace -Lighea Pappalardo (IBAM-CNR), Neither kilns nor moulds. Indirect evidences for the reconstruction of a coroplast workshop at Katane

The extraordinary discovery, which occurred in 1959 during an excavation of a sewer duct in the center of Catania (ancient Katane), brought to light one of the most important votive complexes of the western Mediterranean, connected from the moment of its finding with the sanctuary of Demeter and Kore. Beyond a large amount of imported and locally produced pottery, the deposit contained more than 10,000 both imported and locally produced terracotta figurines, from the beginning of the 6th to the late 4th century BC.
In 2011, a research project aimed to the integral publication of the coroplastic material has been undertaken by a team of researchers which thus far have almost completed the study of the Archaic coroplastic material.
The present paper intends to demonstrate how the study of the production technique of both mould and handmade terracotta figurines together with the stylistical analysis, can provide crucial information to identify one or more coroplastic workshops, even in the absence of kilns, moulds and tools.
The analysis of some technical features which presuppose specific craft procedures together with the results of the archaeometric analyses have provided the indirect evidences to suggest that a large group of figurines originated in the same local workshop. The analysis of the manifacture technique allowed to make some assumptions on the sequence and organization of the production, the possible presence of apprentices and some stylistic choises.

3.

Stéphanie Huysecom-Haxhi (CNRS), Les terres cuites figurées de Kirrha (Phocide) du VIe au IVe siècles avant J.-C. : caractérisation des productions et définition du faciès de l’atelier coroplathique kirrhéen

Les fouilles entreprises de 1936 à 1938 à Kirrha, au lieu-dit “La Magoula”, par M. Jannoray, de H van Effenterre et de J. Roger sous l’égide de l’Ecole française d’Athènes ont mis au jour un large dépôt constitué de milliers de fragments de terres cuites figurées et de vases, en particulier miniature, datés pour la grande majorité de la fin du vie au début du ive siècles. À côté des productions directement importées de la région de Corinthe, la présence de types, en particulier de protomés et de protomés-buste féminines, aux caractéristiques stylistiques originales invite à supposer l’existence à Kirrha même d’ateliers coroplathiques qui ne se contentaient pas d’importer des types étrangers, dont certains pouvaient être reproduits localement sur une ou plusieurs générations grâce au procédé du surmoulage, mais qui étaient également créateurs. Aucun vestige d’ateliers n’ayant encore été découvert, notre connaissance de ces derniers ne repose donc plus que sur les productions mises au jour. Dans le cadre de ce workshop, on verra ainsi tout ce que l’analyse des terres cuites, depuis leur prise en charge en 2013, peut d’ores et déjà apporter à la caractérisation des ateliers kirrhéens et à la compréhension de leur fonctionnement à l’époque de leur apogée, au ve siècle.

4.

Nancy Serwint (Arizona State University), The Terracotta Sculpture from Ancient Marion: Evidence for the Coroplasts’ Craft

The ubiquitous presence of clay allowed for that material to emerge as the most common medium for sculpture in the Mediterranean world during antiquity. With objects ranging from miniature to colossal, the results spanned the spectrum from the sublime to the banal with figurines and statues reflecting a breadth of aesthetic appeal. The artisans who were responsible for such a disparate corpus certainly varied in their artistic capacities, but what proved to be a commonality was a range of technical strategies that could be employed with varied results. This paper will focus on the variety of production techniques that were employed by coroplasts working in the eastern Mediterranean during the first millennium BC. The gamut of manufacturing processes that included hand fashioning, the use of the potter’s wheel, and the implementation of the mold will be discussed from the point of view of tactics and stratagems that responded to the demands of an enthusiastic market. Emphasis will be placed on the evidence that has emerged from excavation of the ancient cities of Marion and Arsinoe on the island of Cyprus where an unprecedented number of terracotta sculpture has been recovered. The material is particularly valuable because it not only emanates from an area where local production has been confirmed but also allows for tracking production over time from the Archaic through the Hellenistic periods.

5.

Gina Salapata (Massey University), Does size matter in the terracotta serial production of dedications?

Moulds made possible the mass production of numerous inexpensive dedications in the Greek world. The use of derivative moulds in terracotta serial production inevitably results in products that are both smaller and less clearly defined than their prototypes since details are eliminated or simplified. What factors may have influenced the choice of smaller objects by dedicants? Was it simply a matter of lower cost or could there also have been other considerations such as portability, suitability for mass dedications and groupings, or even availability of display space? Furthermore, the symbolic value of dedications, for example, as tokens of participation in a cult activity, would not have been affected by size.
And did size matter to the recipient divinity? I argue that small size did not decrease the perceived efficacy or religious significance of an offering. In fact, reduced size would have highlighted the most important features, those that communicate the messages inherent in the form of the dedication.
This paper addresses aspects of the economic and social dimension of coroplastic serial production, primarily focusing on a long series of mould-made plaques (6th-4th c BC) from the sanctuary of Agamemnon and Kassandra in Lakonia. These plaques show a wide spectrum of quality and size, ranging from large, detailed images to small and simplified versions.

6.

Sven Kielau (Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum Hildesheim), Production and distribution of terracottas in Western Asia Minor: demand and supply in Hellenistic times

In Hellenistic times, Pergamon was - probably - one of the centers of a diversified terracotta figurine production. This can at least be supposed, according to the many terracotta findings in several excavations in Pergamon and its region. The output was notably diversified, both in themes and types. Comparisons to the sepulchral figurines found in Myrina and the many so-called grotesques found in Smyrna reveal differences as well as similarities: The style is in a pan-hellenic way more or less related, but some themes are significantly restricted to the intended use (sirenes and nikes for sepulchral use, more elaborated art pieces presumably in houses). The paper aims to examine and outline what can be said about the regional Terracotta production, the demand for such products and the distribution of certain figurines in Western Asia Minor, focussing on the distribution paths of Pergamene figurines.

7.

Marina Albertocchi, Terracotta figurines at Iasos, Karia: some observations on production and consumption

The finds from the investigations conducted in the so-called Thesmophorion at Iasos have revealed a framework of offerings dating from the middle of the sixth to at least the end of the IV century B.C. Among these, terracotta statuettes are the largest core along with lamps and hydriai. Besides some protomai, it prevails the type of a standing female figure with different attributes (mainly piglets, flowers and patera). Very common are also the statuettes representing an hydrophoros, sometimes with a child. It should be noted moreover the presence of male bearded offerers, a specific Carian type.
Terracotta figurines from the sacred area have been presented in a preliminary manner by D.Levi and later by W.Johannowsky, A.Romualdi and F.Berti: these publications, however, concerned in particular the iconographic aspect, following a traditional approach in this research field, and the significance of the images in relationship with the cult practised in the sanctuary.
The communication points instead to frame the assemblage of the terracottas discovered in a regional context, where the features of the local production can be easily understood from the technical, as well as iconographic, point of view; is moreover significant to investigate the connections with the coroplastic productions of the adjacent areas such as Halikarnassos, Kaunos and Theangela.

8.

Maria Adele Ibba (University of Cagliari), Modelli greci nella coroplastica della Sardegna tardo punica e romana (IV-II secolo a.C.)

Nel 1938, a Cagliari, fu scoperto un edificio templare di età tardo repubblicana la cui planimetria, del tipo dei santuari su terrazza di area centro-italica, era fino ad allora sconosciuta in Sardegna. Lo scavo evidenziò, oltre all'edificio templare associato a una cavea teatrale, un pozzo ricolmo di una notevole quantità di materiale fittile tra cui spiccava un consistente numero di frammenti relativi a circa cinquanta matrici per coroplastica, oltre a una ventina di esemplari di terrecotte figurate. In particolare, le matrici erano destinate alla produzione di thymiateria, di placchette, di applique, di piccole figure umane, divine, animali o di esseri fantastici e, novità per l'ambito sardo, di busti in maggioranza femminili. Va rilevato che in nessun caso si è riscontrata una corrispondenza tra le matrici e le terrecotte figurate. La varietà di argille utilizzate per la loro realizzazione, inoltre, fanno ipotizzare diverse provenienze. La presenza tra le matrici di iconografie che al momento trovano confronto con il mondo greco occidentale, più precisamente con quello siceliota e magno greco, pone il problema se si sia in presenza di importazioni o di derivazioni da positivi importati che, in ogni caso, sono stati poi riprodotti localmente. Partendo dall'analisi degli aspetti tecnologici di tali materiali l'intervento si focalizzerà sui vettori commerciali e culturali attraverso i quali i modelli greci, a cui essi sembrano riferirsi, siano giunti in Sardegna.

9.

Geltrude Bizzarro, La coroplastica votiva del santuario settentrionale di Pontecagnano: l'evoluzione dell'artigianato locale in risposta alle esigenze devozionali

Le terrecotte votive del santuario settentrionale di Pontecagnano costituiscono un repertorio variegato ma coerente e di grande interesse per la quantità di informazioni che restituisce sui caratteri dell’artigianato artistico locale e sulle scelte operate dai devoti nel corso del tempo.
Le statuette più antiche, risalenti alla prima metà del VI sec. a.C., erano d’importazione, ma già dalla seconda metà del secolo la richiesta del mercato dei devoti diede impulso all’attività degli artigiani locali che elaborarono serie originali che adattavano tipi coroplastici allogeni ai caratteri peculiari della ritualità del santuario. La marca caratteristica del santuario picentino, il sacrificio del porcellino da latte, raffigurato nei primi tipi permane nell’iconografia dei fittili più recenti e contribuisce a connotare il regime delle offerte dell’area sacra di un sito di frontiera che partecipa al più complesso fenomeno religioso etrusco, all’interno del quale l’aspetto demetriaco del rito assolveva alla funzione di mediare esigenze affini a quelle esaudite dai santuari tesmoforici dell’Occidente greco, generando manifestazioni del culto del tutto originali.

10.

Maria Elena Gorrini (Università degli Studi di Pavia), Terracottas from Cappadocia

Since 2011, an archaeological mission of ISAW and Pavia University have started excavating a tell at Kınık Höyük, Southern Cappadocia (http://www.kinikhoyuk.org ). This region played a strategic role from Prehistory up to modern times due to its geographical position on the route connecting the Central Anatolian plateau to Cilicia, through the Taurus passes, and far beyond to Syria and Mesopotamia. Despite its importance, so far the province of Niğde has received little attention from scholars, particularly as regards the Bronze and Iron Ages. With a view to bridging this gap, our team from the University of Pavia carried out an archaeological survey in the region between 2006 and 2009, followed by a 10 year project of excavations. From two operations in the mound a series of fragmentary terracotta statuettes, mostly from Hellenistic times, has been recovered. Most of them represent birds of prey, but bovines, lions and horses are attested as well. A minor number depict female figurines, possibly deities. The purpose of this paper will be to present them, in order to address questions such as their production areas (and commercial routes involved), production techniques, iconographies and fonction.

Panel 3.15
(triple)

Villas, peasant agriculture, and the Roman rural economy

Day and Time:

Friday | 25 May | 09:00-16:30

Organiser:

Annalisa Marzano (University of Reading, UK)

Speakers:

  1. Elena Chirico
    Rural villas, farms and productive infrastructures in Roman rural economy

  2. Astrid Van Oyen (Cornell University)
     Planning and investment in a peasant landscape: the site of Podere Marzuolo (Tuscany, Italy)
  3. Werner Tietz (Universität zu Köln)
    Temporary workforce on the Roman villa
  4. Candace Rice (University of Alberta)
    Keeping up with demand: new results on agricultural specialization from the Upper Sabina Tiberina Project.
  5.  Marco Maiuro (Università di Roma "La Sapienza")
    Wine and Imperial properties
  6. Claudia Forin and Maria Stella Busana
    Economy and production systems in the Roman Cisalpina: some data from the study of the farms and the villae
  7. Coralini Antonella (University of Bologna)
    Villas and farms in the Po Valley, Arimino Placentiam
  8. Oriol Olesti (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)
    Villas, peasant agriculture and wine production in the Ager Barcinonensis
  9. Juan Francisco Álvarez Tortosa (Universidad de Alicante)
    Production models in Roman commercial agriculture: Northwest of the provincia Hispania citerior between 2nd century BC and 2nd century AD
  10. Josep Burch (Universitat de Girona)
    Interrelation of rural settlements in the framework of an integrated economic system in the extreme northeast of the province of Hispania Citerior Tarraconensis
  11. Antoni Martín i Oliveras (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)
    Quantifying laetanian roman wine production function (1st century BC-3rd century AD). A microeconomic approach to vineyard's yields and winemaking processing facilities
  12. Lisa Lodwick (University of Reading)
    The organisation of cereal production in Britannia: corn-drying ovens as evidence for agricultural integration
  13. Veselka Katsarova and Hristo Popov (National Institute of Archaeology and Museum, Sofia)
    The role of agriculture for the formation and functioning of local settlement networks in the urban territory of Augusta Traiana (Province of Thrace) in 2nd-4th c. AD
  14. Olivera Ilic (Institute of Archaeology SASA)
    Roman rural settlements in the territory of Central Balkans

External
Discussant:


Alessandro Launaro (University of Cambridge)

Sponsors:

Structural Determinants of Economic Performance in the Roman World

Panel abstract

The appearance and spread of villas both in Roman Italy and abroad has been at the centre of a vast range of studies on the Roman economy and society. From Marxist approaches, which saw in the Roman villa based on slave labour a unit denoting a particular type of agricultural exploitation and 'mode of production' to studies aimed at understanding how settlement hierarchy and modes of landownership changed over time, archaeological evidence from excavations and from field surveys has been central to the debate. In the past, the spread of large villas in Republican Italy has been seen as a phenomenon which displaced from the land small and medium landowners and thus contributed to Rome's socio-political problems from the time of the Gracchi onwards. Recent studies, however, have in fact stressed that large villas and farms were not at variance with each other. The productivity of peasant farmers and the level of competitiveness they had on the market has also been the object of important recent investigations and reassessments. Time seems thus ripe for a more organic evaluation of how the 'villa economy' and the 'peasant economy' operated and to what degree the two were integrated.

This panel proposes to investigate if and how villas and small and medium farms were part of two productive and distributive systems which supported each other (e.g., by giving access to agricultural processing facilities; by growing complementary crops). In the villa category, special discussion will be devoted to imperial estates and how these played a role in influencing the market's demand, with possible trickle down effects on large and small agricultural estates. The main focus of the panel is Roman Italy, but proposals for papers that investigate this phenomenon also in provincial territories are encouraged. Submission proposals from early career researchers are particularly welcome.

Paper abstracts

1.

Elena Chirico, Rural villas, farms and productive infrastructures in Roman rural economy

This paper portraits a part of the ager Hebanus, the territory of the colonia of Heba (GR) between the Republican period to the mid-imperial time. Heba was founded in the 1st century BC, north of the colonia of Cosa in the river Albegna Valley. This territory was studied in 1980s by a field survey project related to the ager Cosanus. The main result of the project was the abandonment of small and medium properties, and consequently of peasantry agriculture, after the development of a new type of villa based on slave labour, well represented by the case at Settefinestre. Despite the fact that a lot of excavations are limited to a part of the villas and that many small and medium properties are known by field survey, today, thanks to new research, a different reading of this landscape is possible. In it great estates, like the villa of Settefinestre, co-existed with farms, as Fattoria Colle Lupo, medium villas rusticae, as Campo della Paura, and productive and living settlements as that at Banditaccia – some of them were occupied until the end of 4th century AD. In short, despite the decline of a lot of rural sites at the end of 1st century BC, there were a coexistence of different settlements - large villas, medium and small farms, houses and productive quarters - in an articulate productive system stimulated by the presence of important infrastructures as the via Aurelia vetus (3rd century BC) and the port linked to the imperial estate of Talamone (end of 1st century AD).

2.

Astrid Van Oyen (Cornell University) - Gijs Tol (The University of Melbourne) - Rhodora Vennarucci (University of Arkansas), Planning and investment in a peasant landscape: the site of Podere Marzuolo (Tuscany, Italy)

The site of Podere Marzuolo (Grosseto, Tuscany) highlights the precariousness of firm typological distinctions between villa and peasant economies in Roman Italy. Situated ca. 40 km away from the coast and from the nearest urban settlement of Roselle, Marzuolo finds itself in a fragmented Tuscan topography populated by sites associated with small-scale peasant activity. Marzuolo exhibits many features traditionally ascribed to villa economies. The site, which covers ca. 2 ha, was carefully planned and experienced a sudden, large-scale investment in construction in the early Augustan period, including a central building in opus quasi-reticulatum masonry, and a material assemblage testifying to supra-regional connections (e.g. amphorae, window glass). However, neither the layout of the site nor its material signature conform to the image of a traditional villa rustica. Instead, recent excavations by the Marzuolo Archaeological Project reveal a purpose-built multi-craft community, geared towards production and distribution. This paper uses the new evidence of the 2016 and 2017 excavations at Marzuolo to challenge and rethink the explanatory baggage that comes with divisions between peasant and villa economies: Could peasants innovate? Could landowners invest in sites other than villas and activities other than agriculture, on a more modest scale than the elite-run brick manufactories or mines? Where did risk taking reside in the Roman rural economy?

3.

Werner Tietz (Universität zu Köln), Temporary workforce on the Roman villa

This paper will be dedicated to the exchange of workforce between villas and surrounding 'subsistence' farms in Roman Italy. The latter often suffered from a lack of arable land, but had a surplus of workers. Those farms could earn cash money to buy goods they were not able to produce themselves, or could be granted access to facilities which demanded investment capital they lacked, such as wine presses or storage close to markets. The farms had to concentrate on grain (namely wheat and barley) to be self-sufficient. The villa always specialized on one or two cash crops. By the end of summer at least a few workers could by hired out to harvest and process olives, grapes or flowers.

4.

Candace Rice (University of Alberta), Keeping up with demand: new results on agricultural specialization from the Upper Sabina Tiberina Project.

This paper examines the productive strategies of the Sabine region of Italy, focusing principally on the excavations of the villa at Vacone in the context of several newly investigated villas and farms in the region. The Vacone villa is of particular interest to discussions of imperial-era productive strategies as it contains one of the largest olive oil pressing facilities in central Italy (minimum of three press beds); during the early imperial period, the villa specialized in the export-oriented production of olive oil. By the second century AD, however, specialized production had ceased and was replaced by diversified production of oil and wine. This paper places the Vacone villa within its local and regional context of surrounding Sabine farms and villas and the market town of Forum Novum, and explores the broader historical and economic context in which the productive changes took place. The diversification of production at Vacone surely came in response to changes in the wider economic landscape, seen elsewhere across central Italy. The widespread nature of these changes suggests that demand at Rome was key to shaping central Italy’s economic landscape. While such observations are scarcely new, investigations at the Vacone villa and surrounding sites allow for a detailed look at local responses to wider economic change, both as the owners invested in specialized infrastructure for olive oil and then later diversified to keep up with changing market demands.

5.

Marco Maiuro (Università di Roma "La Sapienza"), Wine and Imperial properties

Wine was produced in several imperial properties during the High Empire. The paper seeks to explore the possible connections between various kinds of wine, their relevance and reputation and imperial wine; it purports to evaluate the impact of imperial wine-production on various local economies, whether it contributed to agrarian specialization and if it eventually fostered growth locally.

6.

Claudia Forin and Maria Stella Busana, Economy and production systems in the Roman Cisalpina: some data from the study of the farms and the villae

The paper aims to provide some insights to reflect about the role of farms and villae in the economic history of the Roman Cisalpina. The study started from the systematic census and the analysis of extraurban complexes, archaeologically investigated in Northern Italy, each one integrated into its environmental and settlement context. The complexes generally developed since the Augustan age and they are characterized by a long continuity of frequentation, which lasted until the V-VI century CE. If the presence of production facilities is the obviuos key indicator for understanding the economic role of a settlement, on the other hand the attestation of rich residential installations (i.e. a real investment of the owner) can return precious indications about the socio-economic level. Therefore, on the basis of archaelogical data, we will try to undestand whether and how small and medium farms and villae were part of the same production system, perhaps complementary, or if the advent of more structured economic realities (villae) somehow caused the end of the smaller complexes. Some important observations in this regard arise from the diachronic reading of the complexes, closely related to the historical events of the territory. These data support some considerations on the influence of imperial property on the market of the various northern regions, with possible effects on the success or disappearance of certain functional typology.

7.

Coralini Antonella (University of Bologna), Villas and farms in the Po Valley, Arimino Placentiam

In the history of studies about rural Roman ec, the researches of household archaeology, from villas to farms, had a leading role. The works by G.A. Mansuelli on Cisalpina, and in particular those on regio VIII, in Aemilia, were pioneering, between 50's and 70's. A half century later, new archaeological evidence from excavations and from field surveys, richer and richer and also more and more elaborate, makes possible new research adresses and needs new readings.
The review of the regio VIII situation, Arimino Placentiam, based on new data from surveys and excavations, allows to point out the coexistence of different and complementary productive vocations, with lots of specializations in various environmental compartments, corresponding to specific settlement patterns.
The critical analysis of these patterns allows to draw again the cultural and economic physionomy of a strategic region for Roman Italy.

8.

Oriol Olesti (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona), Villas, peasant agriculture and wine production in the Ager Barcinonensis

In the frame of the panel “Villas, peasant agriculture, and the Roman rural economy”, we will analyze the example of the Ager Barcinonensis (Hispania Tarraconensis), where we have identified the existence of different forms of wine production, from the industrial and large-scale production, to the peasant and low-range one. The starting point of our research is the fundi system, and the existence of several wealthy families (identified in the monumental inscriptions, but also in the epigraphy of the production or in the ancient place-names) that employed servi and liberti as instruments for the management of their lands. At the same time, the archaeological identification of several peasant exploitations shows the diversity of this local economy. Despite the importance of industrial wine production and long-distance commerce, the role of the peasant economy should be taken into account, showing the existence of a complex “Social landscape” in Barcino and his territory.

9.

 Juan Francisco Álvarez Tortosa (Universidad de Alicante), Production models in Roman commercial agriculture: Northwest of the provincia Hispania citerior between 2nd century BC and 2nd century AD

10.

 Josep Burch and Josep Maria Nolla (Universitat de Girona) - Pere Castanyer and Joaquim Tremoleda (Museu d'Arqueologia de Catalunya-Empúries), Interrelation of rural settlements in the framework of an integrated economic system in the extreme northeast of the province of Hispania Citerior Tarraconensis

During the Early Roman Empire, many rural settlements were situated in the extreme northeast of the province of Hispania Citerior Tarraconensis. Archeological research carried out in recent years has revealed considerable differences between these settlements, which has led to their classification. The parameters used in the classification were: environment, potential natural resources, communications, relation with urban areas, chronology, dimensions, construction characteristics and use of luxurious elements, number and type of spaces in the settlement, and the economic activity that was undertaken (agricultural, livestock or crafts). Through the application of these parameters, agricultural settlements have been classified into rural neighbourhoods (vici), suburban villas, coastal villas, dependent rural establishments, craft establishments and mansiones. Drawing up this classification was not an aim in itself: the end objective was to determine the system of occupation and exploitation of the territory. It was found that this was organised around the cities that existed in this region — mainly Emporiae and Gerunda. The objective was also to determine how the types of settlement had distinct functions, determined through their complex interrelation.

11.

Antoni Martín i Oliveras - Víctor Revilla Calvo - José Remesal Rodríguez (Universitat de Barcelona), Quantifying laetanian roman wine production function (1st century BC-3rd century AD). A microeconomic approach to vineyard's yields and winemaking processing facilities

Viticulture has played an important role in the economy of the Mediterranean coast of Hispania Citerior Tarraconensis between the 1st century BC and the 3rd century AD.
The vineyards, wineries and pottery workshops are usually found clustering in specific areas, such as the Laetanian region located in the northeast coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Their spatial and temporal distribution has been previously interpreted as a proof of the existence of intensive and specialized winemaking economy, associated with large-scale production & trading of wine in bulk quantities targeting predominantly to overseas markets.
Despite the significance of wine-growing activity in this territory and its more or less important role in the empire-wide economy, the processes involved in production, trade and consumption of Laetanian wine and its evolution over time, have not been quantifying using formal empirical economic models and further econometric methods.
Here we present a first approach to a microeconomic explanatory data analysis of this ancient wine production function, paying particular attention in vineyard’s yields and winemaking processing facilities, taking the values from Roman writing sources, archaeological record, experimentation and ethnographic or current viticulture data.
The main goal of this paper is to explain the different processes and agents involved in this supply chain and evaluate "ab origine" the changing dynamics of Laetanian wine production system.

12.

Lisa Lodwick (University of Reading), The organisation of cereal production in Britannia: corn-drying ovens as evidence for agricultural integration

This paper will investigate the role of villas and farmsteads in the agricultural economy of Britannia. Roman Britain was largely a rural society, where the economy was primarily based upon agriculture, alongside mining, metalworking, pottery and textiles. Understanding how the agricultural economy was organised is still an open question, and in the absence of written evidence, archaeological excavations are the primary dataset with which to investigate this. Due to widespread developer-funded excavation, a substantial corpus of c. 2500 excavated rural settlements are now available for consideration, collated in the recent Rural Settlement of Roman Britain project. It is now clear that farmsteads, rather than villas, were the major component of the rural settlement pattern, alongside villages and roadside settlements.
This paper focuses on one aspect of settlements, corn-drying ovens, as a proxy for establishing the location and scale of cereal processing. These ovens were used to prepare cereals for flour and/or malt production, both products considered to be destined for the market. Whilst located at a range of settlement types across Britannia, here a more detailed evaluation of the size, form and location of these substantial ovens will be undertaken. The capacity and function of ovens at sites in the Hampshire Downlands and the East Midlands will be evaluated to address whether villas and farmsteads were integrated or discrete components of the rural economy.

13.

Veselka Katsarova and Hristo Popov (National Institute of Archaeology and Museum - Sofia), The role of agriculture for the formation and functioning of local settlement networks in the urban territory of Augusta Traiana (Province of Thrace) in 2nd-4th c. AD

14.

Olivera Ilic (Institute of Archaeology SASA), Roman rural settlements in the territory of Central Balkans

After the conquest of southeastern Pannonia and the Central Balkans in the process of Roman expansion to the east, in the newly-created provinces, besides autochthonous rural settlements, which continued to exist for some time, an organised urbanisation of the conquered area also took place following the establishment of Roman administration. According to investigations conducted so far, this process developed more intensively in the Pannonia region than it was the case in the barely accessible mountainous and hilly areas of the Central Balkans. The new organisation of the Roman state resulted in the establishment of new types of rural settlements, vici, which were similar in their type of dwellings to the pre-Roman settlements of the autochthonous populations. It has been concluded, on the basis of the topographic data of registered sites, that Roman settlements were established in the vicinity of main roads and at locations that made possible the exploitation of natural raw materials along with the employment of a labour force from the neighbouring native settlements. Before the agricultural estates of the type villa rustica were established, such settlements, which to a great extent resulted from deductions of veterans, were important production units which played a part in supplying the urban centres.

Panel 3.16
(double)

The logistics and socio-economic impact of construction in Late Republican and Imperial Rome

Day and Time:

Wednesday | 23 May | 14:30-19:00

Organisers:

Dominik Maschek (University of Birmingham)
Ulrike Wulf-Reidt (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut)

Panel abstract

Paradoxically, the Roman building industry is both one of the most intensely studied and most widely ignored fields in Archaeology and Ancient History. Generations of archaeologists have devoted themselves to the excavation, recording, preservation and interpretation of Roman architecture. However, they traditionally focused on questions of architectural style, cultural significance and political symbolism of Roman buildings. The question what drives a society to freeing mighty forces and resources for huge building projects and how such building achievements could change the perception of social groups was rarely discussed. However, over the last 20 years a specialized field of research has emerged which approaches the complex logistics of Roman architecture by means of quantitative analysis. It has been understood that only the hypothetical modeling of both labor force and building costs can lead to a valid estimate of a given building's importance in its respective historical context. Pre-industrial construction techniques and the management of building materials and human resources can be put into perspective with the help of 19th century building manuals. Based on the observation of building materials and toolmarks, the construction effort can be estimated. Correlating this estimate with the available space, the probable maximum of workers can be assigned to the construction process, thus also providing a framework for the organization of the building site and the most probable duration of the building project. The demand for resources and manpower can finally be translated into hypothetical building costs by considering Roman wages and prices. This sheds an entirely new light on the planning, logistics and administration of building sites. Furthermore, it can also contribute to a better understanding of social organization and their changes. Taken together, all these aspects and analytical steps lead us to new and highly complex models of the building industry in the Roman Mediterranean. The panel aims to demonstrate the value of this methodology by drawing upon a wider range of relevant case studies which date from the Late Republican to the Imperial Period. By looking at the results of recent and ongoing projects, we will also discuss future challenges and perspectives for this kind of research within the wider context of studies on the Roman economy.

Paper abstracts

1.

Dominik Maschek (University of Birmingham) and Ulrike Wulf-Reidt (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut), Introduction

2.

Daniel Diffendale (University of Michigan), Reficere aedes Fortunae et Matris: temple building at Rome in the lead-up to the Late Republic

The venerable twin temples of Fortuna and Mater Matuta under Sant’Omobono in Rome’s Forum Boarium were destroyed and rebuilt in the late 3rd century BCE. This reconstruction has been identified as the product of a triumviral commission set up in the year following the devastating fire of 213 BCE (Livy 24.47.15–16; 25.7.5–6). The identification of the archaeological remains with the historical record is of great interest, as it offers a glimpse at a building project commissioned by the Senate and undertaken during the height of the war with Hannibal. The triumvirs employed at least four different varieties of tuff building stone, the properties of each variety being matched to its intended function in the structure. Quarry marks are attested on only one of these varieties, however. The remains at Sant’Omobono are sufficiently well preserved to allow calculation of the total volume of stone required, in addition to orders of magnitude for mudbrick, timber, tile, and fill. I will look at the extractive resources and labor force required for this reconstruction project, consider its political and emotional valences in the late 3rd century BCE, and contemplate the project’s legacy over the following two centuries.

3.

Christopher Courault (Universidad de Córdoba), Construire une ville ex novo en Hispanie. Analyse quantitative du rempart et de l’urbanisme de Cordoue au IIème siècle av. J.-C.

Les traces de la fondation de Cordoue se résument à quelques structures fu, ainsi que des tessons de céramiques généralement descontextualisés ainsi l’investigation a souvent donné une vision sommaire –ne pouvant être autrement étant donné la réalité archéologique-, et une longue discussion sur la chronologie de la fondation de la ville.
Dans des travaux antérieurs nous avons eu l’occasion d’aborder des études quantitatives de l’enceinte républicaine –et son évolution jusqu’à la fin de l’antiquité- dans le but de proposer une réflexion sur son temps de construction et son impact économique ; offrant une meilleure connaissance sur le rempart, ainsi que sur l’exploitation du territoire et de la roche calcaire.
La nouveauté de ce travail est d'établir un cadre idéal sur la répartition des forces de travail en fonction du nombre de citoyens romains, dont pour les carrières; et d’appliquer une vision vitruvienne pour certaines problématiques. D’autre part, la construction de l’ensemble du système défensif passe par diverses étapes qui n’ont pas encore été quantifiées .
Aux nouveaux résultats sur le temps totale de construction du rempart républicain, il faudra rajouter d’autres analyses quantitatives à l’image du système d’évacuation des eaux en-dessous des enceintes. La conséquence de ces indications est que les forces de travail n’étaient pas dédiées uniquement aux remparts, sinon à d’autres projets urbanistiques qui se développaient en parallèle.

4.

Pauline Ducret (Université de Paris 8), Quantifying the building industry: a confrontation between archaeological and textual sources

In order to quantify the activities of the building industry, archaeologists try to evaluate construction efforts in terms of costs, delay and manpower, mainly because of the lack of written sources on this matter. However, texts dealing with this subject do exist, and present both a practical and a theoretical point of view. Thus, the confrontation between archaeological and written data is essential in order to propose realistic estimations.
At first, I will collect, in the literary sources, texts that give information about costs, delay and manpower during the Roman republic. This would be a way to provide average figures which may be useful to delimit theoretical projections. I will then expose my own estimations about materials, manpower and delay for the construction of a late-republican villa in Sperlonga and confront our figures with some Cicero’s texts about the construction of his own villas and domus. This may exhibit some material limitations that we cannot see on the archaeological data.
Finally, I would like to examine the Roman juristic theories about cost and delay in construction. What did the Romans do when they were confronted to unexpected costs or delays? What were the juristic procedures and guarantee for owners who wanted to make their constructions finished? And, finally, did the Roman jurists provide theoretical expectations about price and delay?

5.

Dominik Maschek (University of Birmingham), Assessing the Economic Impact of Building Projects in the Roman World: The Case of Late Republican Italy

According to David Harvey, urbanization can be understood as a process which first and foremost is geared towards the constant absorption of excess capital. Based upon the analysis of both literary and archaeological source material, it is obvious that this was also the case in Late Republican Italy. The demographical, political and economical transformations of the 2nd and 1st came at an unprecedented pace and scale and put the traditional social system under enormous strains. However, the differences to modern (urban) capitalism were striking. In the towns of Late Republican Italy we do not find many upstart investors but first and foremost the members of local, landowning elites who were not only interested in financial but also in social capital. Euergetism and conspicuous spending played a key role in their investments – and building projects were high up the list of prestigious donations. Traditional scholarship has focused more on the ideological and aesthetic qualities of such monuments and buildings. However, their wider significance for the economy of Late Republican Italy has never been analyzed at a larger geographical scale, going beyond the narrow focus on isolated buildings or specific building types. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present the first results of a macro-study of the Late Republican building industry, based upon volumetric modelling and on an in-depth analysis of supply-chains and architectural logistics. The results call for a profound re-assessment of the impact of building projects on the Roman economy.

6.

Dennis Beck (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, TOPOI), Import and use of marmor Numidicum in the Late Republic and Early Imperial Period. Considering Rome and the Italian Regions

„M. Lepidus Q. Catuli in consulatu conlega primus omnium limina ex Numidico marmore in domo posuit magna reprensione“ The present paper focuses on a selection of some archaeological contexts from Lazio and Campania, which offer distinctive chronological markers for the export and import of marmor Numidicum in the late Roman Republic and the early Roman empire. First of all, the use of marble in architecture is of particular interest, second a discussion of the new aspects to the marble trade and networks during the period of 2.- . centuries BC as well as new assumptions about the actors, administrative staff and main stakeholders considering the marmor Numidicum.

7.

Javier Á. Domingo (Pontificia Università della Santa Croce) - Paolo Barresi (Università Kore di Enna) - Josep R. Domingo - Patrizio Pensabene (Sapienza University of Rome), Una propuesta de método para la reconstrucción de los costes de los teatros: los casos de Madauros y Leptis Magna

Cada vez es más frecuente introducir en el estudio de la arquitectura romana el análisis de su coste económico. De hecho, en los últimos años se ha desarrollado una metodología que permite calcular de manera aproximada este valor, teniendo en cuenta la gran cantidad de variables que intervienen en todo proceso constructivo (volumen y coste del material utilizado, coste del transporte, de la mano de obra, tiempos de producción, fases constructivas, etc.).
La dificultad por valorar económicamente todas las variables ha impulsado la aplicación de esta metodología de cálculo a edificios de los que se conoce su coste real, generalmente gracias a la epigrafía. De este modo se ha buscado una verificación empírica de la validez del sistema de cálculo utilizado y, al mismo tiempo, mejorar nuestra comprensión del grado de implicación de cada una de las variables que deben tomarse en consideración en el coste final de un edificio.
Siguiendo esta línea de investigación queremos aplicar la metodología de cálculo a dos teatros norteafricanos, de uno de los cuales conocemos su coste de construcción y del otro el coste de la reforma del frente escénico. El análisis de estos edificios permite aplicar la metodología de cálculo contemporáneamente a un edificio realizado en piedra local (Madauros) y otro en el que fueron utilizados diferentes tipos de mármoles procedentes de diversas canteras (Leptis Magna).

8.

Simone Mulattieri (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin), Eterogeneità nelle forme di horrea laziali: dalla costa all´entroterra

Das antike Latium, welches sich in dem Gebiet zwischen dem Fluss Tiber, den Sabiner Bergen und der Stadt Sinuessa und dem Tyrrhenischen Meer erstreckte, eignet sich vortrefflich für eine Untersuchung der Distribution von Waren im Römischen Reich: In Bezug auf seine transportwirtschaftliche Position war es zum einen Endpunkt der Versorgung mit Waren und Lebensmitteln, da Städte und Siedlungen Endabnehmer der Produkte darstellten, zum anderen war das Gebiet auch eine Transitzone für angrenzende Gebiete, in welche Erzeugnisse überführt wurden. Über die Distribution von Waren können Rückschlüsse auf die antiken Wirtschaftsabläufe und der zugehörigen Infrastruktur gezogen werden. Der Vortrag soll nun die Möglichkeiten der Identifizierung und Unterscheidung unterschiedlicher horrea-Typen anhand ihrer bautypologischen Gestaltung und den gelagerten Warenarten aufzeigen. Exemplarisch soll dies an der Küstenstadt Portus erfolgen sowie an Lucius Feronie, einer Stadt im Hinterland. Der Vortrag wird auf Italienisch gehalten werden.

9.

Ulrike Wulf-Rheidt (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut) - Evelyne Bukowiecki (Ecole française de Rome), Building with bricks – the social and economic impact of building material for extra-large projects in Rome

One of the building materials for the imperial residences on the Palatine Hill in Rome, the bricks, is used as a case study for the supply mechanisms for extra-large buildings projects. It can be shown how the process of standardization is closely related to an industrialization of the Roman building industry and the extremely well organized logistic of the construction site. The standardization in the production of brick derived also from the desire to control the production and supply of this building material from early imperial times onward. The choice of the building materials and its use in construction had also social and economic factors. It allowed an increase number of unskilled workers and a minimal demand for skilled workers. Generic calculations for the needed buildings materials can show the impact of the production, transportation and organization of mayor building projects in Rome.

Panel 3.17
(double)

Light in context. Productions, solutions, consumptions and representations of the light and its devices for and in ancient spaces

Day and Time:

Wednesday | 23 May | 09:00-13:30

Organiser:

Maria Elisa Micheli (University of Urbino 'Carlo Bo')

Speakers:

  1. Maria Elisa Micheli (Università di Urbino Carlo Bo)
    Lighting design in Late Hellenistic period. Marble chandeliers from Fianello Sabino.
  2. Laurent Chrzanovski (International Lychnological Association)
    Lighting design in Late Hellenistic and Roman period. Clay polylychnes lamps
  3. Giandomenico De Tommaso (Università di Firenze)
    Lighting design with transparent effects. The glass lamps.
  4. Massimo Zammerini (Università di Roma La Sapienza)
    Stone, marble and glass: lighting design in the Modern and Contemporary.
  5. Custode Silvio Fioriello (Università di Bari Aldo Moro)
    Oil for lamps. Apulian study-cases.
  6. Anna Santucci (Università di Urbino Carlo Bo)
    Painting lights. Light into a room, light on objects.
  7. Anna Santucci (Università di Urbino Carlo Bo)
    Lighting a funerary interior. The Roman Tomb N83 at Cyrene in a 3D perspective.
  8. Laura Ambrosini (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche)
    Light in Antiquity: Etruria and Greece in Comparison
  9. Małgorzata Kajzer (Jagiellonian University in Kraków)
    Unity in diversity. The variety of oil lamps found in different areas of the city of Nea Paphos, Cyprus

Panel abstract

Artificial lights have marked deeply the cultural, economic and technological system of ancient societies. Materials, tools, objects, fuels expressed different relationship between products and costumers as well as between public and private destinations in the ancient spaces. Therefore artificial lights are good indicators to filter and explain socio-cultural phenomena. The present panel discusses selected study-cases from Greek and Roman world and also compare them to modern lighting productions, in order to analyze the manufacturing process, functional and contextual uses, rituals and perceptive practices of lighting systems and devices.

Paper abstracts

1.

Maria Elisa Micheli (Università di Urbino Carlo Bo), Lighting design in Late Hellenistic period. Marble chandeliers from Fianello Sabino.

The case-study concerns few great marble chandeliers by the Roman villa in Fianello Sabino; they were sculptured in Delos in the second half of 2nd century B.C. They are discussed from a double point of view: marble-manufacture and function-system. Their virtual display offers also an interesting opportunity to prove intensity and perception of the lighting phenomenon in a closed space.

2.

Laurent Chrzanovski (International Lychnological Association), Lighting design in Late Hellenistic and Roman period. Clay polylychnes lamps

Among the ancient artifacts related to lighting devices, clay polylychnes lamps offer relevant information not only about their relationship with the precious artifacts having similar shapes, but also about production-centers, and function-systems. The propose of the state of knowledge on these artifacts will create the opportunity for a discussion about the socio-anthropological ways of use and destinations.

3.

Giandomenico De Tommaso (Università di Firenze), Lighting design with transparent effects. The glass lamps.

In the field of lighting, glass is used both in public and private architecture, with non-transparent window slabs (predominantly for thermal space) and lamps. In the second case, lamps have been attested for a long time, both cups in suspension and alone. One hypothesis to be verified is the possibility that diatreta may have been used like lamps, placing inside a single wick.

4.

Massimo Zammerini (Università di Roma La Sapienza), Stone, marble and glass: lighting design in the Modern and Contemporary.

Starting from the new sources of lighting, which have today introduced a new aesthetic in the lighting fixtures, the paper wants to introduce materials and shapes of ancient artifacts in the contemporary dimension of the architecture and the design; the purpose is to evaluate their possible use and their effects.

5.

Custode Silvio Fioriello (Università di Bari Aldo Moro), Oil for lamps. Apulian study-cases.

The systematic collection – which is here for the first time – of the literary, epigraphic and archaeological sources relating to olive cultivation and olive oil production in Apulia in the Roman period, allows to reconstruct a well-structured and productive framework. Furthermore, the comparison with the solid data relevant to the entire regional compartment allows the hypothesis of a specialized olive oil chain also in the production of fuel oil. The synoptic analysis of the collected data draws an economic profile of integration between agricultural and artisan productions and then outlines a multifaceted landscape, far from the historiographical stereotypes that link Apulia to the Cicero's image of the region as a very unparalleled pars Italiae (CIC, Att. 8, 3, 2) and provide interesting prospects for the continuation of research also in the field of eco-sustainable valorisation and inclusive communication of the results achieved.

6.

Anna Santucci (Università di Urbino Carlo Bo), Painting lights. Light into a room, light on objects.

Greek and Roman wall-paintings offer the more significant evidence on the perception of the lighting phenomenon in the space and on the objects. The paper aims to analyse some examples of such aspects in the classical world in order to observe how light and lighting were painted and used in constructing visual representations.

7.

Anna Santucci (Università di Urbino Carlo Bo) - Paola Lassandro and Marina Zonno (CNR - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche), Lighting a funerary interior. The Roman Tomb N83 at Cyrene in a 3D perspective.

The lighting in a funerary space assumes different values and functions. Roman rock-cut Tomb N83 at Cyrene offer a controlled study-case for analyzing quantity and quality of the lighting performance in a 3D perspective. Starting from the archaeological and historical reconstruction of the context, the 3D model will simulate the interior lighting of the tomb using virtual prototypes of ancient lamps. The 3D models contribute also to develop interpretive virtual models application for valorizing and promoting the cultural heritage

8.

Laura Ambrosini (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche), Light in Antiquity: Etruria and Greece in Comparison

Light in ancient Etruria has certainly had great importance as evidenced by all the religious doctrines and practices concerning lightning, the light par excellence. This study focuses on Lighting tools in Etruria and the comparison with similar instruments in Greece. Knowledge of their structure is essential because this enables us to define their different functions and uses in these different cultures. Greeks did not use candlestick-holders, and objects that have been improperly identified as candelabra (i.e., as supports for illumination with candles) should more properly be classified as lamp/utensil stands. The Etruscans, on the other hand, preferred to use torchlight for illumination, and as a result, the candelabrum—an upright stand specifically designed to support candles made of resinous fibers that were saturated with flammable substances—was developed in order to avoid burns to the hands, prevent fires or problems with smoke, and collect ash or melting substances. But they also used utensil stands similar in shape and form to the Greek lamp holders, which were placed near the kylikeion at banquets. Kottaboi in Etruria were important utensils used in the context of banquets and symposia, while in Greece, kottaboi they were interchangeable with lamp/utensil stands. All in all, this analysis demonstrates that there are both formal and functional differences between Greek and Etruscan lighting tools which can be traced to social and cultural differences.

9.

Małgorzata Kajzer (Jagiellonian University in Kraków), Unity in diversity. The variety of oil lamps found in different areas of the city of Nea Paphos, Cyprus

Oil lamps – as a basic source of light during antiquity in Mediterranean – can provide different kinds of knowledge about people, culture and organization of space. As a pottery material they are indicator of exchange and even trade between different regions. The case study concerns Hellenistic and Roman lamps found in Nea Paphos, ancient capital of Cyprus. 112 analysed objects, chosen from the whole assemblage, were found in different parts of the city, including the agora, residential area and the theatre. They represent variety of types and fabrics distinguished during the macroscopic studies. The differences and similarities between the sites will be discussed to show the deviations among finds coming from places representing different functions inside one city centre. Moreover, the problem of local and imported objects will be taken into account to illustrate the potential role of oil lamps in distribution of goods. The presence of Athenian, Rhodian, Levantine, Knidian or Ephesian production defined among the lamps from Nea Paphos is a good evidence for the importance of these production centres throughout times. The considerations about diverse aspects will create the opportunity for a discussion about the significant meaning of oil lamps in the archaeological research.

Panel 3.18

Strictly economic? Ancient Serial Production and its Premises

Day and Time:

Thursday | 24 May | 09:00-11:00

Organiser:

Arne Reinhardt (Universität Heidelberg)

Panel abstract

Which factors cause and determine ancient serial production? As an early stage within today's mass production, serial production takes a central place in manufacturing and the industrialization of the modern era. In the modern era, the underlying factors for serial production are high demand and rationalization. But how does this concept translate for antiquity? What other factors must we take into account (may these be of economic, aesthetic, ideological, or other nature) that could have shaped and influenced ancient form(s) of serial production? Though there seems to be little doubt that the serial production of artifacts played an important role in ancient cultures, research on this topic is still in its infancy considering how complex this phenomenon was. Likewise, only few attempts have been made to characterize and define the specific characteristics of ‚serial production' in antiquity. The panel proposed here attempts to address the questions mentioned above by discussing coherent groups of ancient material under the premise of ‚serial production', focusing on companion pieces and multiple sets of homogenous artifacts of corresponding origin (i.e. same authorship, place of origin (‚workshop'), date, size, material, technique, and/or style). In order to avoid confusing ancient forms of serial production with modern concepts, each paper should be based first and foremost on a close study of an ancient group of materials, which provides the foundation for further thoughts and critical discussion of the resulting significance for our understanding of ancient serial production and its relations to ancient economies. Interesting questions might be: Does ancient serial production necessarily imply the (re)production of large numbers and is it always connected with supraregional commerce? When is this the case, and why? How did traditional crafting techniques encourage new methods of serial production and how were they altered (standardized, improved upon, made ‚more economic') by the high demand that only serial production could satisfy? How did production for local usage contexts (such as sanctuaries and cemeteries) or cultural technologies (such as architecture) form the basis for serial production, and in turn, influence regional trade? Suitable groups of materials for innovative research into these questions include Graeco-Roman sculpture and sculptural decoration, coroplastics, ceramics, and many more.

Paper abstracts

1.

Simona Perna, A Case of Serial Production? Julio-Claudian “tureen” funerary urns in calcitic alabaster and other coloured stone

From the Augustan period vase-shaped urns carved from calcitic alabaster and other coloured stone came into use in wealthy Roman burials across the Western Empire. The “tureen” is the predominant “standardised” type as reflected by the current survival rate of over 63 examples. Stylistic analysis reveals the existence of a basic model with idiosyncratic features: the body occurring in three variants or subtypes (A, B, C); the loop handles carved in one piece with the body with a prevalence of leaf-shaped lower attachments; multiple elements carved separately and then added by means of a tennon/pin and then glued: a convex lid; a piriform-pointed finial and a flared foot. The metrological analysis also reveals a constant thickness of the body’s walls and parts and the application of a system of proportions. The stylistic homogeneity of the contextually dateable examples suggest that the production peaked from the Julio-Claudian to the Flavian periods, whilst showing a fairly coherent workshop tradition particularly in Rome where all three subtypes are attested. However, limited variants within the type may represent the “signature” of a workshop/ artisan working or customization. The making of the tureens involved skilled artisans, tools and techniques that differed from those of other stone containers. The limited number of extant examples and their recurring features, particularly the technical similarities, hints at a possible small-scale luxury serial production.

2.

Manuel Flecker (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen), Die Werkstatt des M. Perennius und die Entwicklung von serieller Produktion reliefverzierter arretinischer Sigillata

Bedingt durch den Einfluss östlicher Sigillatawerkstätten beginnt man im 1. Jh. v. Chr. an verschiedenen Orten in Italien mit der Produktion von rot-engobiertem Tafelgeschirr zu experimentieren. Während sich das neue Verfahren generell rasch durchsetzt, so entwickelt sich mit Arezzo ab augusteischer Zeit ein herausragendes Produktionszentrum, dessen Produkte bald zum Synonym schlechthin für feines rotes Tafelgeschirr werden. Die Erzeugnisse der arretiner Werkstätten heben sich dabei durch ein eigenes Formenspektrum, durch ihre herausragende Qualität und zusätzlich durch die Herstellung reliefverzierter Trinkgefäße heraus. Innerhalb kürzester Zeit wird Terra Sigillata aus Arezzo nicht nur in alle Teile des Mittelmeeres exportiert, sondern von Arezzo aus werden große Filialbetrieb u.a. in Pisa und Lyon gegründet. Die Werkstatt des Perennius ist dabei möglicherweise nicht nur der allererste Betrieb, der in großem Maßstab Reliefkeramik produzierte, ihre Tätigkeit lässt sich zudem über fast 80 Jahre hinweg bis um die Mitte des 1. Jhs. n. Chr. verfolgen. Diese Werkstatt und ihre Etablierung eines vollkommen neuen Produktionszweiges vor dem Hintergrund der generellen Entwicklung des Standortes Arezzo bietet damit die herausragende Möglichkeit, zentrale Fragen des Panels zu diskutieren.

3.

Christoph Klose (Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena), Seriality and Restoration: The ‚Restored Coins‘ of the Roman Empire

Due to their crafting technique, coins constitute a well-suited material group for studies of serial image production. Coinage‘s innate double nature consisting of types and die-identical series results in a two-fold form of serial image production – both forms are pivotal for discussing serial production of images in antiquity: on the one hand mass production by use of the same dies; on the other hand reproduction of the same images by use of different individually cut dies. While the former marks a simple procedure of mass duplication of identical images by means of the same prototype, the latter is an example for antiquity’s manifold phenomena of prototype copy and transfer to new objects/media. Thus, questions of reproduction, seriality and copying can be broken down to the die engravers (signatores, scalptores). Conclusions about the operational process of copying can be gained by close comparison of coins struck from different dies but showing the same image with minor variations.
The ‚restored coins‘ of the Roman Empire compose an esp. appropriate group for studying modes of image seriality. In these series that copied obverse and reverse images of prior issues (up to 300 years old in the time of Trajan) similarities and variations can be detected not only within the issue but also in comparison between prototype and later reproduction and sometimes even in comparison to variations of different prototypes. They thus open up a new level of insight into image seriality.

4.

Mariachiara Franceschini (Universität Zürich), Ikonographische Serien in der attischen Vasenmalerei: Technische Vereinfachung oder semantische Strategie?

Betrachtet man die Wiederholung ikonographischer Motive in der Vasenmalerei, soll zunächst identifiziert und definiert werden, was eine Serie ausmacht, wie und wieso ein Motiv stufenweise zum Serienprodukt wird. Dabei stellt sich als nächstes die Frage, ob die Dynamik der Herausbildung einer Serie als ein rein technisches Phänomen zu betrachtet sei oder ob ihre Semantik ebenfalls von Bedeutung ist.
Für eine solche Analyse eignen sich die Mantelfiguren besonders gut: Als einheitliche Gruppe, deren bildliche Elemente gemeinsame und rekursive Eigenschaften zeigen, entwickeln sie sich zu einer Serienproduktion, die zur konstanten und redundanten Wiederholung figürlicher Schemata bzw. Kompositionen führt. Die Etappen dieser Entwicklung werden in der ersten Hälfte des 5. Jhs. am Beispiel der Œuvre des Berliner-, des Harrow-, des Achilleus- und des Penthesileas-Malers konkret dargestellt. Durch den Fokus auf die Werkstätten werden die technischen Voraussetzungen und Normen, die den Herstellungsprozess und die Gestalt des Motivs geprägt haben, deutlich nachvollziehbar. Wenn auch einerseits die handwerkliche Praxis eine wesentliche Rolle bei der Serienproduktion spielt, erkennt man anderseits bei diesen Malern die Wirkung der Serie auf semantischer Ebene, die eng an die Wahrnehmung der Nutzer gebunden ist. Bei der ökonomischen Frage der Verbreitung ikonographischer Motive als ›Massenware‹ sollen daher neben technischen ebenso soziokulturelle Faktoren näher beleuchtet werden.

5.

Sabine Patzke and Elisabeth Günther (FU Berlin), Comparing Innovative Strategies: Serial Production of Etruscan ceramica sovraddipinta and the Paestan Asteas-Python-workshop

This paper discusses the evolution of serial production in Etruria and Paestum during the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. The comparison of the use of applied color, standardized iconographic patterns, and shapes in both regions sheds light on different strategies of the painters to shape serial production techniques.
Etruscan ceramica sovraddipinta is defined by its technical properties – the clay-based orange or white paint was applied over the black glaze that covers the vases entirely. While the earlier vases resemble contemporary red-figured vases the later ones display a repetitiveness of their pictures that is usually interpreted as the result of a standardization process. In contrast, the contemporaneous Asteas-Python-workshop in Paestum is characterized by iconographic properties, i.e. the use of standardized “stock figures” and a homogeneous design. However, the template-like figures, their recurring combinations and the additional use of applied color ask for a comparative discussion of the strategies behind the designs of the vases.
This paper will show how the assumed impoverishment of ceramica sovraddipinta vases and of standardized “stock figures” in Paestum might have been of economic advantage. Paradoxically, the serial production of the ceramica sovraddipinta as well as the Asteas-Python-workshop allowed for a convenient manufacturing of commissioned (non-serial) works.

Panel 3.19

The role of water in production processes in Antiquity

Day and Time:

Saturday | 26 May | 14:30-16:30

Organiser:

Elena H. Sánchez López (Universidad de Granada)

Panel abstract

"Water is a precious natural resource (...). It has a wide range of applications in our daily life and it is a driver for economic prosperity. Water can be used for energy production and it is necessary for the development of industrial and agricultural activities" (Water JPI SRIA H2020).

Water has been highlighted as a precious natural resource and an essential element for live. Archaeological, historical and anthropological studies have analysed the water supply systems in different periods and regions. But, by contrast, very few has been said about the uses given to this water, apart from baths or fountains display in Roman times.

However, we may draw attention to the fact that water is fundamental for the economic prosperity of any society, as it is vital in the development of many economic activities, both now and in the past. The objective of the panel about "The role of water in production processes in Antiquity" will be to analyse the use of water in productive activities from Iron Age to Late Antiquity.

The purpose is to analyse the use of water in craft and production activities, and the archaeological evidences related to the water management across the Mediterranean Region. Within those consuming water activities might be highlighted for example different building activities, food production, pottery making, metallurgy, mining or textile manufacture. In those productive activities, water was sometimes one of the elements used in the making process, in others cases it was used for the cleansing of raw material or facilities, but it could also be the water-power what was used.

In summary, water management studies can (an might) go further than just analyse the water supply and distribution systems (wells, cisterns, and aqueducts, later on). It is essential that we ask (ourselves or the archaeological record) which was the use given to the water. In this case, the panel will focus on one of the less highlighted uses: those related to the production processes.

Paper abstracts

1.

Elena H. Sánchez López (Universidad de Granada) - Juan Jesús Padilla Fernández (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), Not only clay. The role of water throughout the pottery making process

In most cases the studies about pottery workshops in Antiquity, only analyse two elements: one of the activities in the production processes, the firing of the wares, thoroughly studying the kilns, and the results of the production processes, the pottery itself.
So, only in very few cases other structures or activities within a potter’s workshop and the pottery production process are really taken into account. But three elements are essential in the pottery production process: apart from the clay, vegetable combustible and water were also essential. It is true that in many cases, those two other raw materials and their uses are difficult to identify in the archaeological record. But, especially in the case of the water supply or water management, the presence of water channels, vats or cisterns, is frequently noted, even if the structures remain un-described, as a result of a lack of interest toward them.
This paper will analyse the pottery production process, identifying water consuming activities, and studying their archaeological evidences. Furthermore it will propose a first approximation to the real water needs of a potter’s workshop in Antiquity.

2.

Cecelia Feldman, Water in craft production and manufacturing in Roman Asia Minor

In contemporary western society, the concept of a “carbon footprint” is well-established. This idea acknowledges that there is a carbon cost underlying many of the products and processes that make up the fabric of western life and culture. Operating in the same vein is the concept of a “water footprint” which accounts for the water used in producing the power, food, and goods upon which society relies.
As in modern society, water was also a critical ingredient involved in many of the products and processes used in the ancient world. An investigation of this “water footprint” provides a critical perspective on the important role that water played in the productive economy. In this paper, I survey the types of evidence that point to the use of water in craft production and manufacturing processes in Greco-Roman Asia Minor (especially ceramic production and water-milling), and argue that this analysis forms the basis of a methodology for investigating the myriad ways that water was incorporated into the productive economy. In addition, a focus on the relationship between productive activities and the proliferation of aqueducts that accompanied the spread of Roman imperialism provides a means to explore the spatial dynamics and scale of economic activity in the Roman provinces.

3.

Davide Gangale Risoleo, Water for the villas: water distribution for production processes

The contemporary archaeological debate frequently discussed the presence of water in Roman villas, mainly focusing the alternative between decorative and functional aims. The past researches have deepened the decorative and functional value of water in a residential building, trying to study the water as a luxury element - highlighted with pools and fountains - or as an enhancing economic tool. However, the point is: how can we architecturally and structurally decline the functionality of water in a villa? Furthermore, is it possible to identify technological differentials in water supply in relation to the productive process? Sometimes, water supply was secured by connecting it to a central system, like a city aqueduct, supplying the villas along its way in the suburban area. However, this was not the only possible solution. In fact, there are also villas, securing their own water supply through private aqueducts, built, by public concession, for the exclusive use of a villa or a group of them. These particular cases seem to conceal a meaning that goes beyond the display of wealth and glamour. A new construction of an aqueduct was a huge expense, higher than connecting to an existing public network. Therefore, could we interpret this effort as the need of particular productive processes? Finally, is the huge expense for the construction of a private aqueduct justified by the gains that would have generated a certain agricultural or handicraft production?

4.

Javier Martínez Jiménez (University of Cambridge), Water and building in Late Antiquity

The role of water in building projects is usually underestimated when simply not taken into account. Mortar, lime, bricks and plaster all need water in quantity, not only in their production but also when used in a building site. In this paper I want to address how water was used, and where was it obtained, in buiilding projects in late Antiquity, underlining the role of continuing functional aqueducts in the enabling of large construction projects in the late antique West.

5.

Beth Munro (University of London), Water use in metal and glass recycling workshops in late antiquity

In the 4th to 8th centuries CE, the recycling of glass and metal objects in makeshift production spaces was done widely throughout cities and villas of the former Roman Empire. These recycling workshops, as spaces specifically devoted to the reprocessing of disused metal and glass objects, were often located in abandoned rooms in public and private, often high status, Roman buildings. The workshops are detected archaeologically because of the remains of metal or glass working ovens, or by the presence of material waste, slag, or sometimes finished products left behind. Notably, these production spaces are often located near water sources – in or near fountains, latrines, public and private baths, or dining rooms with water features. In part, the workshops may have been located here because these spaces contained the highest quantities of iron, lead, bronze, and glass features to recycle. But it is often overlooked that these spaces may have still contained or had access to water, which would have been essential to these workshops, and the technology of reprocessing these materials. This paper will examine the location of water sources, channels, drains, and water storage vessels in relation to recycling workshops and look at whether the proximity of such features can help us understand in greater detail the production technology and workforce organisation for glass and metal recycling operations in late antiquity.

Panel 3.20

The production of portrait statuary in Roman cities. An economic factor?

Day and Time:

Saturday | 26 May | 09:00-11:00

Organiser:

Thoralf Schröder (University of Cologne)

Panel abstract

Portrait statues are one of the most important features of Roman visual culture. They were set up in nearly every province of the Imperium Romanum. So obviously there was a high demand for this kind of sculpture. However, aspects of production and economics rarely played a role in the archaeological discussion of these artefacts.

Based on specific stylistic characteristics scholarship has detected several production centers for different types of sculpture. The best known case certainly is that of the marble sarcophagi. With Rome, Athens and Dokimeion at least three large-scale and exporting production centers have been identified. Needless to say, many more workshops existed and some of them also exported their sarcophagi. For Athens there is evidence that even most of the objects were produced to be exported. Consequently, the “sarcophagi industry” must have played a significant role in the economic landscape of